Compared with modern Chinese, there was a wider range of central (or proper) vowels in Middle Chinese. The final endings were divided into those with a nasal consonant final [-m], [n] and [-ŋ] (yangsheng yun), those without final consonant (yinsheng yun), and those with the consonant endings [-p], [-t] and [-k] (rusheng yun). According to the dictionary Qieyun, words of the yangsheng group could rhyme with such of the rusheng group ([-uŋ] with [-uk], [-an] with [-at], and [-am] with [-ap]).
Dr. Yingxiao (Peter) Wang obtained his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics from Peking University, Beijing, P.R. China, in 1992 and 1996, respectively. He received his Ph.D. degree in Bioengineering from the University of California, San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering in 2002 and continued his postdoctoral work at UC San Diego working under Bioengineering Professor Shu Chien and Professor Roger Y. Tsien in the Department of Pharmacology. Before joining the UC San Diego faculty in 2012, he was an associate professor at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Department of Bioengineering and a full-time faculty member in the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the University of Illinois. He was also affiliated with the Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Neuroscience Program, the Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, and Institute of Genomic Biology at UIUC. Dr. Wang is the recipient of the Wallace H. Coulter Early Career Award (both Phase I and Phase II), the National Science Foundation CAREER Award, and National Institutes of Health Independent Scientist Award. His research is supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and private foundations. Dr. Wang teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on molecular engineering, live cell imaging, and mechanobiology.
Its population was 3,700,000 at the 2016 census whom 1,301,732 live in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County being urbanized. Jiaozuo enjoys a humid subtropical climate with continental climate influences. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. Average temperature ranges from 0.3 °C in January to 27.5 °C in July. Extremes exist from -22.4 °C to 43.6 °C. Precipitation averages 659 mm.
Its population was 3,700,000 at the 2016 census whom 1,301,732 live in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County being urbanized. Jiaozuo enjoys a humid subtropical climate with continental climate influences. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. Average temperature ranges from 0.3 °C in January to 27.5 °C in July. Extremes exist from -22.4 °C to 43.6 °C. Precipitation averages 659 mm.

Created by Pietro Polendina, Yang's cybernetic limb possesses great strength. Its power is shown in "Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back", where a single blow sent her father, a fully trained Huntsman, skidding back several feet, even though Tai blocked the attack. It is also outfitted with most of Ember Celica's features, including a shotgun.[8] As seen in "Rest and Resolutions", the arm can detach from her bicep, and can even be fired like a projectile.

Traditionally, Tonghua occupied a railhub position in a region of China noted for trade in only three agricultural commodities. These were ginseng, marten furs and deer antler products. In the 1980s Tonghua had some success with a wine distillery producing sweet, sticky red wines that proved popular with local consumers. From 1987 onwards a bienniel wine festival was inaugurated, but this and the industry it promoted ultimately failed commercially owing to competition with joint-venture wine companies such as Dragon, who were able to produce a product that was marketable overseas. Following this failure, Tonghua industry was thrown back on its traditional agricultural products - and a few small but viable factories, including one specialising in artificial furs.

Although not discernible by formal criteria, Chinese words can be categorized in different lexical categories or word classes. Some words can be put into several categories because they can take over different parts of speech. The first distinction is therefore whether a word is a notional word (shici 實詞) or a functional word (xuci 虛詞). Notional words can be divided into seven categories, funtional words into six, of which the last three are very small.
The arrival of new technologies and digitised media into family life, and how they intersect with contemporary changes in both childhood and parenting culture have resulted in a marked change in the nature of home-based musical experiences for very young children. From recent general surveys of digital technology use in everyday life among young children carried out in various post-industrial ... [Show full abstract]Read more

After arriving in Atlas and meeting with James Ironwood, Yang obtains an entirely new outfit primarily consisting of khaki coveralls, the gold zipper of which is unzipped just below the breast to reveal a white low-cut shirt. Around each thigh of the coveralls is a gold zipper that allows for the pants leg to be detached, as well as a belted strap that connects to the leg. The right leg is unzipped but still strapped to the coveralls. Over top the coveralls, she wears a baggy, black crop jacket with fur trim around the neck and black-and-orange straps along the sleeves. Around her waist is a black-and-orange belt with black-and-yellow folded fabric on the sides and a golden buckle of her emblem. She wears tall black boots with black laces. Around her left thigh is a wide black belt with a pouch attached. For accessories, she has resumed wearing her orange scarf around her neck and her purple scarf around her right leg, like she did with her original battle outfit.
The tone pitches of Early Modern Chinese were identical to the four known tones of Mandarin. The diminished set of sounds had even elevated the importance of the tone pitches. Many Middle Chinese words with the falling-raising tone pitch had changed to the falling tone pitch. Even from early modern Chinese to the modern Mandarin, changes in the tone pitches took place. Some idioms of Mandarin still today show traces of voiced initial consonants and of the entering tone.
Peng Q., Lu S., Shi Yx.., Pan Y., Linsakul P., Shi Yw., Chernov AV., Qiu J., Chai X., Wang P., Ji Y., Li Y.-S., Strongin AY., Verkhusha VV., Belmonte JCI, Ren B., Wang Y.L., Chien S., and Wang Y. (2018) Coordinated Histone Modifications and Chromatin Reorganization in A Single Cell Revealed by FRET Biosensors, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 115(50):E11681-E11690
The Mandarin language knows 22 consonant initials, 3 interstitial semi-vowels ([(ʝ)i], [(ω)u] and [(ʝ)y] ) and 2 consonant endings ([n] and [ŋ]). Syllables include in any case a vowel (yuanyin 元音). There are, as a particular feature of the northern idioms of China, two groups of syllables that replace the vowel by a "hummed" continuation of the initial sound. These are the syllables with initial consonants [dʐ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ] and [ʐ], as well as [dz], [tsʰ] and [s]. Another peculiar sound of the Mandarin language is the retroflex approximant [ɑɻ] that is used as a syllable, but also as a suffix to monosyllabic words. In the Taiwanese national language, the [ɑɻ] is rarely used as a suffix. The word for "here", for example is called [dʐɛ-ɻ] by the Beijing standard, but [dʐə-li] in Southern China and Taiwan, and therefore also written differently, namely 這兒, and 這裏, respectively.
At the same time an alphabet was created for the national language, known as the Zhuyin alphabet 注音 "commenting on pronunciation". After a long hesitation by the government in Beijing, the Research Society for the National Language of the Republic of China (Zhonghua minguo guoyu yanjiu hui 中華民國國語研究會) was opened in 1916 which had the task to investigate all topolects and dialects of China, to fix a standard language, to compile a standard dictionary and grammar, to compile text books for elementary schools, and to publish magazins promoting the national language.
Despite all of Yang's good qualities, she has shown to be something of a hypocrite, as Yang is rather vocal about Ozpin keeping secrets from everyone, questioning him on several occasions all while not telling anyone that her mother is the true Spring Maiden. She was also willing to lie to everyone along with Blake about letting Robyn Hill escape after telling her about Amity Tower. This ultimately ended detrimentally, as it shatters James Ironwood's trust in Ruby's Group. However unlike Ozpin, she was willing to admit what she did regardless of the consequences.
On February 13, 2004, Yuntai Mountain as the fifth in the world, the third in the country China, was named the world's first World Geopark by UNESCO and caused attention at home and abroad. Meanwhile, Yuntaishan is also a national scenic spot, National Civilized Scenic Area, the first national AAAAA-level scenic spot, national natural heritage, national forest parks, national macaque nature reserve. Yuntain Mountain also has Asia's highest head drop waterfall.
Already in this linguistic stage of the transition from Archaic Chinese to Classical Chinese, the amount of disyllabic words is considerable (like gaoyang 羔羊 "lamb", xuri 旭日 "rising sun", qinyi 寢衣 "pyjama", chizi 赤子 "baby", wugu 五榖 "the five grains", binke 賓客 "guests", daolu 道路 "way, street", juelu 爵祿 "rank of nobility", zhengfa 征伐 "to wage war against", libie 離別 "to part", shufu 束縛 "to tie up, to fetter", bianhua 變化 "change", or gongjing 恭敬 "respectfully", only to name a few). The literature of the Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE) is seen as the age of the standard Classical Chinese.
... Anthropologists have conducted ethnographic research on the shopping activities and on the use of light bulbs to learn how people act in stores and how they use bulbs in their homes. A study of electricity use in China (Wu, 2008) showed that men, rather than women, typically purchase light bulbs, but that electric light is more important for women's economic activities (such as sewing clothes) than for men's, so that men and women might have different priorities in selecting bulbs. This study also showed that more expensive electric items are often purchased in stores, while less expensive ones are purchased in street markets. ...
Yang's fighting style is much more aggressive than that of her teammates. She uses a barehanded fist-fighting style and her weapons; Ember Celica. She is quite agile, able to dodge an onslaught of Ursai and gunfire with ease. Since gaining her prosthetic arm, Yang has taken to using its armored surface defensively, shielding herself from firearms, and staving off attacks to gain greater ground on her opponents, incorporating its advantages into her improved fighting style following further instruction from her father, Tai.
In 1949, the People's Republic adopted the Guoyu as the national language yet changed the name to Putonghua 普通話. The Guoyu used in Taiwan and the Putonghua used in the People's Republic are basically identical, barring some exceptions. In the past 60 years there occurred, nevertheless, changes in the tone pitches of words and the pronunciation of some characters, and the two language have partially a different lexicon (like the word for "bicylce", jiaotache 腳踏車 in Taiwan, but zixingche 自行車 in the PRC, or "taxi", which is jichengche 計程車 in Taiwan but chuzuqiche 出租汽車 in the PRC).
The city of Tonghua has also become a hub for a range of Chinese pharmaceutical firms, including domestic insulin producer Tonghua Dongbao Pharmaceuticals Ltd. These companies are generally spread among the various "Industrial parks" found throughout the city, with 46 projects located in these parks in 2012 alone.[8] Investment in Tonghua's pharmaceutical industry is on the increase, with 27 of these projects worth over 100 million Yuan. Other pharmaceutical producers in the area include Jingma, Zhenghe and Wantong Pharmaceuticals.

Complements are used as adjuncts to describe predicates. Very typical are qualitative complements indicating a possibility or non-possibility of action, like shuo de qing 說得清 "speaks clearly", shuo bu qing 說不清 "speaks not clearly", ting de dong 聽得懂 "has understood", ting bu dong 聽不懂 "has not understood", shuo de liao 說得了 "can be said", shuo bu liao 說不了 "can not be said", mai de qi 買得起 "can afford to buy", or mai bu dao 買不到 "can be bought nowhere".
The verb dé 得 means "to obtain, to get", and it is still used in modern Chinese (like the word dedao 得到 "to receive, to obtain"). As a particle, it connects a predicate with a complement, like chang de hao 唱得好 "[she] sings good". It came in use during the late Tang period. The particle de 地 (original meaning "earth" and pronounced dì) is used to connect a phrasal adjunct with a predicate, like in the sentence hen gaoxing de huanying nin lai fangwen 很高興地歡迎您來訪問 "[We] very happily invite you to visit [us]." (hen gaoxing 很高興 being the adjunct, huanying 歡迎 the predicate).

In the Mandarin language, there are many monosyllabic words. These are mainly simple words for everyday use, like the words for "hand" (shou 手), "to wash" (xi 洗), or "and" (he 和). Yet the greatest part of verbs, adjectives and nouns is disyllabic. Monosyllabic morphemes can be combined to disyllabic or polysyllabic words, like the words for "street" ("horse lane" malu 馬路) or "washing machine" ("wash-clothes machine" xiyiji 洗衣機). Disyllabic words can be created by a juxtapositon (type binglieshi 並列式) of two nouns of two verbs that often have a similar meaning (jisuan 計算 "count-compute", renmin 人民 "person-people", daolu 道路 "way-street", shanggu 商賈 "merchant-trader", or xisheng 犧牲 "victim-sacrifice", kongpa 恐怕 "fear-be afraid"), but sometimes also are opposites (daxiao 大小 "large-small (size)", changduan 長短 "long-short (strengths)", or cunwang 存亡 "exist-perish (existence, survival)"), in which case only one syllable gives the meaning (chengbai 成敗 "accomplish-defeated" is "defeated", huanji 緩急 "relax-haste" means "to hurry").


Quite a modern phenomenon is the use of numerative measure words (liangci 量詞). In Classical Chinese, numerals and nouns were simply put side by side. Measure words are rarely seen and were restricted to certain expressions, like ma san pi 馬三匹 "three horses". The number is added after the noun as a kind of complement. In modern Chinese there is an abundant sea of measure words, like zhi 只 for small animals, pi 匹 for large animals, tiao 條 for long objects (also fish), zhang 張 for flat objects, wei 位 for honoured persons, chang 場 for events (like a rain) or theatre plays, or hui 回 for "(three) times". Ge 個 is a kind of general measure word. The syntactic construction is also different in modern Chinese: In the expression san pi ma 三匹馬, "three animals" is seen as an adjunct to "horse", and the measure word is treated like an interstitional particle.
Each syllable has a tone pitch. Modern Chinese has four tone pitches. In colloquial speech, the tone pitches are not always expressively pronounced, and there are some words where the tone pitch of the second syllable is not pronounced. Such syllables are spoken in the so-called "light" (qingsheng 輕聲) or "zero-tone" (qingsheng 零聲), like in dōngxi° 東西 "things", zǒule° 走了 "go", fángzi° 房子 "room", tóufa° 頭髮 "hair" or guānxi° 關係 "relations").
Structural particles (jiegou zhuci 結構助詞) serve to connect words with adjuncts and complements. The three particles are pronounced very similar and can easily be confounded, also by Chinese. The most simple is the particle de 的, the original meaning of which is "target" (compare the word mùdì 目的 "motif, objective"). From the Song period on, it became a particle connecting a noun and a noun adjuncts, and thus replaced the older particle zhi 之. It can be called a genetive particle, like "of" in English, "de" in French or no in Japanese.
The written language has become frozen from the Tang and Song periods on (but was, of course, also influenced by the vernacular language, as can be seen in the writings of Han Yu 韓愈, 768-824, or Zhu Xi), while there were important changes in lexicon and grammar of the spoken language. The difference became even greater until the end of the imperial period. While texts, even that of the first newspapers, were written in Classical Chinese, the vernacular language was very different from the written language. After the May Fourth Movement the vernacular language (Mandarin) was also used for literature, newspapers and for official publications. The Classical Chinese has nevertheless still a deep influence on the written language of Mandarin. Many texts of the late 19th century were already written in a mixed style that is often hard to understand. The mixed style is still in use in many newspapers in Taiwan, Hong Kong and in the Chinese overseas communities.
The Chinese language is one of the most important languages of the world. It is, if seen as one single language, also the language most often used, with 1.5 billion speakers. It is spoken as the national standard language by the inhabitants of the People's Republic of China, of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and by the many Chinese Overseas communities in Asia and around the world. Chinese is now also the language of one of the world's largest economical powers. And finally, it is a language with a three-thousand years old literary tradition. Some people might even say it is the only surviving language of the ancient cultures of the wolds (the others, Old Egypt, the Mesopotamian cultures, and the Indus culture, having died out since long).
The standard idiom of the Chinese language is the so-called Mandarin language (guanhua 官話) of Beijing that was in use by the state officials (by Westerners called "mandarins") serving in the capital during the Ming 明 (1368-1644) and Qing 清 (1644-1911) periods. During the early Republican period (1911-1949), the Mandarin language was defined as the national standard language (guoyu 國語) of China. In the People's Republic, the national standard language is called "common language" (putonghua 普通話), in Singapore and Malaysia "Chinese" (Huayu 華語). The term guoyu is used in Taiwan.
Dr. Wang obtained a Ph. D. in Bioengineering at UCSD. He worked at University of Illinois as an assistant professor and an associate professor. He is interested in molecular engineering, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), live cell imaging, and bio-nanotechnology to visualize and elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which live cells perceive the environment and to engineer machinery molecules for the reprogramming of cellular functions.
A very large amount of Chinese words includes syllables with slightly similar finals without being categorized as words with "internal rhyme", like shangchuang 上牀 "to go to bed", qingchun 青春 "green spring", i.e. "young age or youth" or qingchun 清純 "pretty and pure". In the narrowest sense, there are only a few words baring more or less the same initials and exactly the same endings (like fufu 夫婦 "husband and wife", jiejue 孑孓, or lulu 轆轤). There are also words including a repeated syllable, like yingying 盈盈 "clear; enchanting; full display; agile, nimble", chuchu 楚楚 "clear, tidy; graceful", zizi 孜孜 "diligent, industrious", or diedie 爹爹 "daddy".

There are also some disyllabic words that can not be dissolved in two morphemes. One of the two used as a single word would make no sense, like "embarrassed, in a dilemma" ganga 尷尬 or "irregular, uneven" cenci 參差. Words of this type are often beginning with the same consonant or ending with the same phoneme. In modern Mandarin, far the largest part of the words, regardless if verbs or nouns, is disyllabic.
The names Maikenxi 麥肯錫 for McKinsey, Maidanglao 麥當勞 for McDonald's, or Guchi 古馳 for Gucci are pure transcriptions, without any associations neither related to the business nor arousing any feelings towards the product or service or in general. The contrary is the literal translation of the company's name, like Weiruan 微軟 "Small soft" for Microsoft.
There might also have been cluster finals, resulting in what is perceived as a long entering tone (see below) and a short entering tone in some topolects. The syllables of Archaic Chinese are grouped into 30 rhyme groups (yunbu 韻部). All words in one rhyme group have the same central vowel and final ending, the initial consonant and the head vowel may be different. Words in a rhyme group are divided into three sub-groups, namely that with a nasal consonant final [-m] [-n] [-ŋ] (yangsheng yun 陽聲韻), those without final consonant (yinsheng yun 陰聲韻), and those with the consonant endings [-p], [-t] and [-k] (rusheng yun 入聲韻, "entering tone", i.e. a syllable with a consonant ending [-p], [-t], or [-k] ). If only the central vowel was the same, all words of the same rhyme group could serve to pair rhymes. There are some endings, like [-an], [-aŋ], [-ən] and [-əŋ] that did not change during the last 3,000 years, but much more words of Archaic Chinese bare a totally different vowel than today.
The Chinese lexicon includes a vast amount of words and expressions through all times (for example, the lexicon of the Han period), all regions (e.g. the lexicon of Guangzhou 廣州), of different levels of speech (for instance, language in letters) and of professional fields (like expressions of the merchant guilds). Chinese scholars even go so far to investigate the lexicon of particular works, like the famous novel Hongloumeng 紅樓夢.

Dr. Wang’s research includes the development of genetically-encoded molecule biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and the application of these biosensors for the visualization and quantification of molecular signals in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution under physical/mechanical environment. Dr. Wang is also interested in integrating the cutting-edge technologies in molecular engineering, live cell imaging, and nanotechnology for the engineering of machinery molecules to reprogram cellular functions.


Another group of disyllabic words consists of a noun and a modifier (noun adjunct, type pianzhengshi 偏正式), like pifu 匹夫 "single man", menren 門人 "gate man (retainer)", shengmin 生民 "living people (populace)", or fuyong 附庸 "appendage servant (vassal)", or a verb and a modifier (an adverbial adjunct), like huiyi 回憶 " to recollect back (to recall, to call to mind)", houhui 後悔 "to regret back (to regret)" or mixin 迷信 "to believe confused (superstition, blind faith)".
When training with her new limb, she learns how to balance her driven and positive nature without overconfidence or agitation. She paints her arm to match her style, changes to a new outfit and heads to Mistral, though Taiyang Xiao Long believes she has not overcome the personality flaws that cost her arm. While traveling Mistral to reunite with Ruby, she continues to struggle with her PTSD, which manifests in her left arm shaking when she encounters stress.
Already in this linguistic stage of the transition from Archaic Chinese to Classical Chinese, the amount of disyllabic words is considerable (like gaoyang 羔羊 "lamb", xuri 旭日 "rising sun", qinyi 寢衣 "pyjama", chizi 赤子 "baby", wugu 五榖 "the five grains", binke 賓客 "guests", daolu 道路 "way, street", juelu 爵祿 "rank of nobility", zhengfa 征伐 "to wage war against", libie 離別 "to part", shufu 束縛 "to tie up, to fetter", bianhua 變化 "change", or gongjing 恭敬 "respectfully", only to name a few). The literature of the Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE) is seen as the age of the standard Classical Chinese.
Jiaozuo is noted for its blast furnaces and machine construction industries. The total GDP of the city in 2017 was 234.28 billion yuan, an increase of 7.4% over the previous year. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 13.733 billion yuan, up 4.6%; the added value of the secondary industry was 13.841 billion yuan, up 6.7%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 81.143 billion yuan, up 9.1%. The per capita GDP reached 65,936 yuan. The three industrial structures changed from 6.4:59.3:34.3 of 2016 to 5.9:59.5:34.6.link
×