In three-syllable words, the middle is often left out, yet for other abbreviations, there are no specific rules. Gaokao 高考, for example, is the abbreviation for Gaodeng xuexiao ruxue kaoshi 高等學校入學考試 "university entrance examination", waimao 外貿 for duiwai maoyi 對外貿易 "foreign trade", renda 人大 can be the abbreviation for Renmin daxue 人民大學 "Renmin University" or Quanguo renmin daibiao dahui 全國人民代表大會 "National People's Congress". Very common are abbreviations unifying two things, like zhong-xiaoxue 中小學 "elementary and middle schools", dong-zhiwu 動植物 (dongwu 動物 + zhiwu 植物) "animals and plants, or jin-chukou 進出口 (jinkou 進口 + chukou 出口) "entrance and exit".
Yang is also described as being a cheerful, energetic and bright young lady. She is arguably the most flippant, carefree and adventurous member of her team, frequently making sarcastic comments and jokes even in the heat of battle and often taking combat and hostile situations lightly. Yang is very sociable and extroverted, even in unfamiliar situations. Yang's love of adventure is the main reason that she decided to become a Huntress. Blake considers Yang the personification of the word "strength". According to Ruby, she snores loudly.[6]
The Chinese lexicon includes a vast amount of words and expressions through all times (for example, the lexicon of the Han period), all regions (e.g. the lexicon of Guangzhou 廣州), of different levels of speech (for instance, language in letters) and of professional fields (like expressions of the merchant guilds). Chinese scholars even go so far to investigate the lexicon of particular works, like the famous novel Hongloumeng 紅樓夢.

At the same time an alphabet was created for the national language, known as the Zhuyin alphabet 注音 "commenting on pronunciation". After a long hesitation by the government in Beijing, the Research Society for the National Language of the Republic of China (Zhonghua minguo guoyu yanjiu hui 中華民國國語研究會) was opened in 1916 which had the task to investigate all topolects and dialects of China, to fix a standard language, to compile a standard dictionary and grammar, to compile text books for elementary schools, and to publish magazins promoting the national language.
Since the end of Volume 3 and her mental recovery at the end of Volume 4, Yang's fighting skills had improved immensely, after training again. Notably, she has incorporated more kicking and dodging. Her new robotic arm also gives her a higher degree of strength, able to send full-grown men flying from the intensity of her blows. During her rematch against Adam, she defeats him despite his superior speed by adapting her combat technique and avoiding attacking him until he uses up the energy from his Semblance so that she can disarm him, showing her improved intelligence in combat.

Based on a field study in a village in the northern plain of China, this paper reviews three different types in how Han-Chinese rural people have coped with domestic electrical appliances during the last 40-odd years of electrification. The aim of this paper is to offer an ethnographic study of the complex relations between technology and social life in a Chinese rural setting and to explore the logic and dynamics whereby rural populations confront and integrate new technical products into their everyday life. This paper is divided into three main parts: following the introduction on the “everyday technology approach” and background information about the field site, the author next gives a brief historical description of the electrification process in rural China. The third part is dedicated to the ethnographic data concerning five appliances: electric light, water pump, TV, washing machine and water boiler–cooler. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues concerning appropriation of new technology in the wider background of society/economy/state and everyday habitus, questioning how well conventional oppositional dichotomies like female/male, masculinity/feminity serve as analytical frameworks. —一项关于中国农村家用电器使用方式的研究 本文的写作基础是作者对中国北方一个汉族村落的社会人类学田野考察。由于中国农村的电器化过程长达四十年之久, 农村人群购买和使用家用电器的条件和方式呈现出非常多元的状态。作者选择考察日常生活五种电器—电灯、水泵、电视机、洗衣机、饮水机—来分析三种不同类型的购买和使用方式。本文的目的在于为研究中国农村社会环境下技术与社会生活的复杂关系提供民族志层面上的实证材料, 并探讨农村人群在日常生活中面对和接受新技术产品时所遵循的逻辑及其动力。 全文由三个主要部分组成 : 一、本文的理论背景即“日用技术研究方法”以及与田野调查相关的背景信息二、农村电气化的历史过程 ; 三、对农村人群购买和使用五种家用电器方式的民族志描写。作者认为, 在研究新技术产品如何被接受的过程时, 有必要将其置于社会/经济/国家这些大背景之下, 同时也必须注意到这一过程与日常惯习之间的内在关联。作者发现, 在家用电器进入农村家庭的过程中, 男女性别二元对立出现缓解, 农村家庭中夫妻之间的合作互助关系得以加强, 尽管男性与女性在购买和使用这些电器产品上各自有不同的想法和做法。 关键词 : 社会性别, 家用电器, 电气化, 中国农村
Through what kind of inaugural scenes is the moral self born? And what are the practices, within that scene, through which one tries to become a moral person, or a different sort of moral self, a person one is not but wishes to be? These questions are at the heart of the recent ethical turn in anthropology and sociocultural studies more broadly. In this paper, I explore three moral imaginaries: ... [Show full abstract]Read more

In modern Chinese, aspect particles (shitai zhuci 時態助詞) play an important role to modify verbs. The particle zhe 著 (着) was originally a verb with meaning "to attach to, to be attached". During the Han period, it became used as a kind of complement attached to the end of verbs and gradually lost its meaning. Today it expresses a state of action ("is doing sth."), like the English –ing suffix. The verb on which the particle le 了 is based, meant "to conclude, to finish". During the Tang period, it was already a particle attached to a verb in order to express a completion, often with the meaning of "after this was done, sth. else happened". The verb guo 過 "to pass, to trespass" still has this meaning, but attached to a verb it expresses an experience.


Through what kind of inaugural scenes is the moral self born? And what are the practices, within that scene, through which one tries to become a moral person, or a different sort of moral self, a person one is not but wishes to be? These questions are at the heart of the recent ethical turn in anthropology and sociocultural studies more broadly. In this paper, I explore three moral imaginaries: ... [Show full abstract]Read more
Henan Polytechnic University (HPU)[1], with a history of nearly 100 years, is the first mining university in Chinese history. Its former is Jiaozuo Coal Mining School which was established by the British Syndicate Co. Ltd., in 1909. It has changed its names several times in the course of development, namely, FuZhong Coal Mining University, Jiaozuo Private Institute of Technology, North-west Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo National Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo Mining Institute and Jiaozuo Institute of Technology. The University resumed its name of Henan Polytechnic University in 2004.
The most important different in the lexicon of the topolects can be seen in personal pronouns, grammatical particles like conjunctions or possessive particles (de 的 in Mandarin, ge 嘅 in Cantonese), the use of suffixes, word repetition (as a method to indicate intensification or mitigation). Bringing forward an object by using a coverbal phrase with the coverb ba 把, for example, is typical for Mandarin Chinese and does not occur in other topolects. A typical question pattern of Beijing Mandarin is the repetition of the predicate in a positive and a negative form (shi bu shi 是不是 "is [or] is not"), while in other dialects of Mandarin, in the lower Yangtze area and the southwest, questions are indicated by the auxiliary verb ke 可 "might [it be that]?", without a repetition of the verb.
Yang is also described as being a cheerful, energetic and bright young lady. She is arguably the most flippant, carefree and adventurous member of her team, frequently making sarcastic comments and jokes even in the heat of battle and often taking combat and hostile situations lightly. Yang is very sociable and extroverted, even in unfamiliar situations. Yang's love of adventure is the main reason that she decided to become a Huntress. Blake considers Yang the personification of the word "strength". According to Ruby, she snores loudly.[6]
Tan Y., Tajik A., Chen J., Jia Q., Chowdhury F., Wang L, Chen J., Zhang S., Hong Y., Yi H., Wu D., Zhang Y., Wei F., Poh Y.-C., Singh R., Seong J., Lin L.-J., Doganay S., Li Y., Jia H., Ha T., Wang Y., Huang B., Wang N. (2014) Matrix softness regulates plasticity of tumor-repopulating cells via H3K9 demethylation and Sox2 expression, Nature Communications, 5:4619
Modal particles are used at the end of a sentence. In Classical Chinese there are several important particles like the explanative particles ye 也, yi 矣, yan 焉 or er 爾 (also written 耳); the question particles hu 乎 (interchangeable with yu 於 or yu 于), xie 邪 (also written 耶), zai 哉 or yu 歟 (also written 與); the sighing particles zai 哉, fu 夫 and ye 也; and the imperative particles yi 矣, ye 也 and hu 乎. In many cases, these particles can be combined. Some of them can also be used at the end of a clause, as a kind of period marker, especially the particle ye 也.
In Classical Chinese, a short object (a pronoun) can be positioned before the predicate (inversion) if the sentence is a question or a negation. In case of generalizations, inversion is also used in modern Chinese (Wo shenme dou zhidao 我甚麼都知道 "I know everything". Yi ge ren ye mei jiandao 一個人也沒見到 "Not a single person was to be seen."). In Classical Chinese, an inversion furthermore signifies a passive, like Handan wei 邯鄲圍 "Handan was encircled.", or Lü Buwei fei 呂不韋廢 "Lü Buwei was dismissed.". The actor is added by an auxiliary phrase including the verb wei 為 (like Handan wei Qin jun suo wei 邯鄲為秦軍所圍 "Handan was besieged by the army of Qin."), the verb yu 於 (like lüe ceng yu renbei 被, like in modern Chinese. The passive tense can also be expressed by the verb jian 見 (like Baixing bu jian bao 百姓不見保 "The ordinary people were not protected.") in Classical Chinese.

Prior to the Fall of Beacon, Yang often uses her Semblance to finish a fight, after absorbing enough damage from blows and overpowering her opponent. However, after the Fall of Beacon, she begins to use it far less often and more as a final attack due to her improved training in fighting smarter rather than harder with Taiyang. This is demonstrated during her fights against the bandits and the Grimm between Haven and Argus where she doesn't use her Semblance to fight. At the end of her second and last fight with Adam Taurus, she uses it to disarm and overpower him with a very powerful punch, finally breaking his Aura.


She is also the physically strongest of the group. Her strength is displayed on numerous occasions, such as when her punch sent a fully grown man several feet into the air and through a glass pillar without the enhancement of her weapon, and in "Players and Pieces", where she was able to keep the mouth of a Nevermore open with one arm long enough to deliver multiple shots down its throat.

During the Song period, many rhyme groups of the Qieyun were already considered as obsolete, and therefore, late Song period scholars merged the obsolete rhyme groups with others, leading to a number of 106 rhyme groups. These are called the Pingshui rhymes (Pingshui yun 平水韻), named after the home town of the linguist Liu Yuan 劉淵. They were first used in a new edition of an earlier dictionary, the Renzi xinkan Libu yunlüe 壬子新刊禮部韻略.
The first person using the word guoyu 國語 "national language" was Wu Rulun 吳汝綸 (1840-1903). He had been impressed by the Japanese efforts to make the idom of Tōkyō the national language, and suggested similar language policy for China. Wu cooperated with Wang Zhao 王照 (1859-1933), who had created a kind of alphabet for the language of Beijing (see qieyin alphabets 切音).
The main strong point of the Chinese characters is that they can bridge time and space. The huge treasury of 3,000 years of Chinese literature can be read by those proficient in the use of Chinese characters. Furthermore, people from whole China can understand the meaning of characters, even if they do not know the national language but only speak a topolect. The pronunciation of Han-period Chinese was very different from the Mandarin language of today, and the phonetic range of most topolects – and even that of Mandarin dialects – is broader than that for the Mandarin language. A transcription of the latter is therefore, in spite of Mandarin being the national language, is not very convenient to serve as a tool for a transcription for many other idoms in China. The use of the national standard language Mandarin in the many provinces of China is only passive, and the population is not actively using it.
Through what kind of inaugural scenes is the moral self born? And what are the practices, within that scene, through which one tries to become a moral person, or a different sort of moral self, a person one is not but wishes to be? These questions are at the heart of the recent ethical turn in anthropology and sociocultural studies more broadly. In this paper, I explore three moral imaginaries: ... [Show full abstract]Read more

Despite all of Yang's good qualities, she has shown to be something of a hypocrite, as Yang is rather vocal about Ozpin keeping secrets from everyone, questioning him on several occasions all while not telling anyone that her mother is the true Spring Maiden. She was also willing to lie to everyone along with Blake about letting Robyn Hill escape after telling her about Amity Tower. This ultimately ended detrimentally, as it shatters James Ironwood's trust in Ruby's Group. However unlike Ozpin, she was willing to admit what she did regardless of the consequences.
Through what kind of inaugural scenes is the moral self born? And what are the practices, within that scene, through which one tries to become a moral person, or a different sort of moral self, a person one is not but wishes to be? These questions are at the heart of the recent ethical turn in anthropology and sociocultural studies more broadly. In this paper, I explore three moral imaginaries: ... [Show full abstract]Read more

Created by Pietro Polendina, Yang's cybernetic limb possesses great strength. Its power is shown in "Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back", where a single blow sent her father, a fully trained Huntsman, skidding back several feet, even though Tai blocked the attack. It is also outfitted with most of Ember Celica's features, including a shotgun.[8] As seen in "Rest and Resolutions", the arm can detach from her bicep, and can even be fired like a projectile.
A third group of composita are predicate–object constructions, like chuxi 出席 "to come out on one's seat (to be present)", danxin 擔心 "to carry the heart (to feel anxious)", or xiaolao 效勞 "to bring labour into effect (to work for)". Very seldom are subject–predicate constructions, like dongzhi 冬至 "winter has arrived (Winter Solistice)", danqie 膽怯 "to be cowardly in the guts" (timid)" or juti 具體 "an objects takes shape (concrete)".
Chinese is famous for a particular category of what is often translated as "proverbs", namely the chengyu 成語 "accomplished expressions". Most of them are four words or characters long. There are much more proverb in Chinese than in any other language, and there are therefore specialized dictionaries, like Wang Tao 王濤 et al. (1986), Zhongguo chengyu da cidian 中國成語大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe); or Huang Yen-kai (1964), A Dictionary of Chinese Idiomatic Expressions (Hong Kong: Eton). The chengyu idoms go back to a tradition to write prose texts in verses, which was very popular from the 3rd to the 7th centuries (a genre called pianwen 駢文). The verses were generally four syllables or words long. A lot of them have a background related to a story, like
Children's health is a key factor in women's decisions to leave abusive partners, yet how these families promote their health after leaving is poorly understood. In this feminist grounded theory study, the authors conducted repeat interviews with 40 single-parent families that had left abusive partners/fathers and analyzed the data using constant comparative methods. Findings reveal the central ... [Show full abstract]Read more
A particular feature of predicates is that there is nothing like a copula in Chinese ("This is good."). Adjectives can serve as a verb, and only the position indicates that it is a predicate. The phrase hong chezi 紅車子 "a red car" becomes the full sentence chezi hong 車子紅 "The car is red." if turned around. There is also no indication of a plural, except for pronouns (我 "me", 我們 "we"), and no articles ("a car", "the car"). The last sentence could also mean "The cars are red.", or (theoretically) "cars are [generally] red".
The interest of Chinese scholars for astronomy was first satified by Arabian and Persian experts, and during the Ming period by Jesuit missionaries. Some Jesuits wrote Chinese books on technology and thus contributed to the creation of new termini technici in China. The overseas trade with Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean brought foreign loan words into China. Only a small amount of these Arabian and Malay loanwords have survived, for example, suona 嗩吶, a kind of trumpet. Yuan period texts contain a lot of loanwords from Mongolian, of which only a few are still in use, like zhan 站 "station", dai 歹 "bad, evil", hutong 胡同 "quarter in a city", mogu 蘑菇 "mushroom", or talian 褡褳 "bag".
As can be seen from these examples, the four words are arranged in a parallel way. Learners of Chinese have to deal with a lot of chengyu. Even in normal speech, four-character expressions are favoured, like jinxing diaocha 進行調查 "to conduct research", jiayi zhengdun 加以整頓 "to improve consolidation", huxiang maiyuan 互相埋怨 "to settle differences" or gongtong shiyong 共同使用 "shared use".

Confucian philosophers, often scolded as conservative, were by no means inclined to the classical language. The Zhuzi yulei 朱子語類, a collection of discourses by Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200), is written in vernacular language, at least partially. The creation of a lot of new terms in technology during the Song, Yuan 元 (1279-1368) and also the Ming periods, is due to the growing economy that stimulated a lot of inventions.

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