A pair of crooked black belts with gold accents are slung around her hip, with a purple piece of fabric attached to the left-rear section of the lower belt. She wears thigh high stockings attached to her miniskirt by garter-belts on the front and back of each thigh, decorated with four golden studs above her knee and her emblem on the outside of each thigh in gold. She also wears black ankle boots with multiple buckles and white ribbons on the back tied in a bow. Around her neck is a purple pendant set in silver.
Dr. Wang obtained a Ph. D. in Bioengineering at UCSD. He worked at University of Illinois as an assistant professor and an associate professor. He is interested in molecular engineering, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), live cell imaging, and bio-nanotechnology to visualize and elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which live cells perceive the environment and to engineer machinery molecules for the reprogramming of cellular functions.
Compared with modern Chinese, there was a wider range of central (or proper) vowels in Middle Chinese. The final endings were divided into those with a nasal consonant final [-m], [n] and [-ŋ] (yangsheng yun), those without final consonant (yinsheng yun), and those with the consonant endings [-p], [-t] and [-k] (rusheng yun). According to the dictionary Qieyun, words of the yangsheng group could rhyme with such of the rusheng group ([-uŋ] with [-uk], [-an] with [-at], and [-am] with [-ap]).

Very common examples for Classical Chinese words or expressions in written language are jiyu 給予 (instead of a simple gei 給), jiayi 加以 (instead of jia 加), or the words yu 與 and ji 及 (instead of the orally used he 和). The first two examples are still used because they are bisyllabic words and thus fit better in the flow of words in a sentence in modern Chinese, as well as in Classical Chinese.
Modal particles are used at the end of a sentence. In Classical Chinese there are several important particles like the explanative particles ye 也, yi 矣, yan 焉 or er 爾 (also written 耳); the question particles hu 乎 (interchangeable with yu 於 or yu 于), xie 邪 (also written 耶), zai 哉 or yu 歟 (also written 與); the sighing particles zai 哉, fu 夫 and ye 也; and the imperative particles yi 矣, ye 也 and hu 乎. In many cases, these particles can be combined. Some of them can also be used at the end of a clause, as a kind of period marker, especially the particle ye 也.
Nominalizations were a very common method in Classical Chinese to create nouns serving as subject and object. Verbal phrases are nominalized by the particle zhe 者. Yet zhe 者 also serves to indicate the topic of a sentence, like Liu Bang zhe, Han Gaozu ye 劉邦者,漢高祖也 "Liu Bang was nobody else than Emperor Gao of the Han.". In such equations both zhe 者 and ye 也 can be be left out.
Like all Huntsmen and Huntresses, Yang has had her Aura unlocked, coating her body with a shield powered by her soul, which helps protect her, especially when her aggressiveness gets her into bad situations. Even with her Aura unlocked, her durability is also noticeably high, as showcased in her doubles match with Weiss against Flynt Coal and Neon Katt during the Vytal Tournament, where she withstands numerous hits from Neon during the bout's opening stages and powers through the effects of Flynt's weapon, knocking him out and securing victory for her side shortly after. Due to the nature of her Semblance and the high durability, Yang would typically absorb enough hits through her Aura to empower herself and then finish the fights with her Semblance, which her father criticizes due to her over-reliance in "Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back".

The most important features of the phonetic system of Chinese is the simplicity of the sound structure of syllables, as well as the tone pitches. There are syllables with only one vowel, but also syllables with several vowels ([aɪ̯], [ɑʊ̯], [eɪ̯], [oʊ̯]). The semi-vowels [(ʝ)i], [(ω)u] and [(ʝ)y] can serve as interstitial sounds. In modern Chinese, only the consonants [n] and [ŋ] can serve as consonant finals. There are no consonant clusters in modern Chinese.
Rinoka Sato (UCSD, graduated) Katherine Lowe (UCSD 2016-2017) Yousef Elafrangi (UCSD 2017) Natalie Tetreault (UCSD 2017) Madinah Najib (UCSD 2017) Christopher Lee (UCSD) Shannon Laub (UCSD 2015-2017, but sometimes she'll come by to say hi) Boulus Haddad (UCSD-BioE 2015-2016, Now at Beepi) (2015); Agamoni Bhattacharyya (2014); Masaru Niidate (2013); Lisa Liu (2013); Homa Rahnamoun (2013); Yen Lu (2013); Christina Winter (UIUC-BioE 2011, Project Engineer at Intertek Corporate); Steve Chang, (UIUC-Chem2010, PhD student at MIT); Jack Krieger (UIUC-Physics 2011, PhD student in Georgia Tech); Yixing Gong (UIUC 2012, PhD student at CAS).
The main strong point of the Chinese characters is that they can bridge time and space. The huge treasury of 3,000 years of Chinese literature can be read by those proficient in the use of Chinese characters. Furthermore, people from whole China can understand the meaning of characters, even if they do not know the national language but only speak a topolect. The pronunciation of Han-period Chinese was very different from the Mandarin language of today, and the phonetic range of most topolects – and even that of Mandarin dialects – is broader than that for the Mandarin language. A transcription of the latter is therefore, in spite of Mandarin being the national language, is not very convenient to serve as a tool for a transcription for many other idoms in China. The use of the national standard language Mandarin in the many provinces of China is only passive, and the population is not actively using it.

This article spells out the methodological considerations and various procedural and methodological subtleties developed over the author's quarter century of sociological field studies of Russia's peasant worlds. Particular attention is paid to “voices from below”—peasant discursive formats that capture, in natural and undiluted form, the evolution of peasant practices constituting the core of ... [Show full abstract]Read more

Words can be distinguished by the tone pitch, but there are also lots of words bearing the same tone pitch. This is less a problem for most disyllabic syllables in modern Chinese, but speaking the monosyllabical Classical Chinese makes mutual understanding much more difficult. The four tone pitches are not used for all syllables. There are, for example, no words with the sounds [faɪ̯], [dən], [nia], [ʂʰωa], [gi], [kiaŋ], [dzy] or [ɕωeɪ̯].

In Mandarin, most verbs and nouns are disyllabic. Words longer than two syllables are therefore often abbreviated to two syllables, like Zhonggong 中共 for Zhongguo gongchandang 中國共產黨 "Communist Party of China", Chuanzhen 川震 for Sichuan dizhen 四川地震 "the earthquake of Sichuan", or Shengushi 深股市 for Shenzhen gufen shichang 深圳股份市場 "the stock market of Shenzhen". Place names are likely to be abbreviated, and there are some special words for Chinese cities and provinces (Chuan 川 is Sichuan 四川, yet Jin 晉 is Shanxi, and Hu 滬 is Shanghai), but also foreign countries (Mei 美 is the US).
In modern Chinese, aspect particles (shitai zhuci 時態助詞) play an important role to modify verbs. The particle zhe 著 (着) was originally a verb with meaning "to attach to, to be attached". During the Han period, it became used as a kind of complement attached to the end of verbs and gradually lost its meaning. Today it expresses a state of action ("is doing sth."), like the English –ing suffix. The verb on which the particle le 了 is based, meant "to conclude, to finish". During the Tang period, it was already a particle attached to a verb in order to express a completion, often with the meaning of "after this was done, sth. else happened". The verb guo 過 "to pass, to trespass" still has this meaning, but attached to a verb it expresses an experience.

In modern Chinese, the particle de 的 expresses reliability. The particle le 了 indicates a change in the situation, with new circumstances and conditions. It stands after a modified verb. The other modal particles are used at the end of a sentence. ma 嗎 is a question marker (the modern counterpart to the classical hu 乎); ne 呢 marks a rhetorical question asking for confirmation, or a this-or-that question; ba 吧 asks even more for confirmation by conversational partners, but also indicates an imperative; there are lots of other modal particles at the end of sentences, like a 啊, ya 呀, and so on. Some particles can be used in combination.
The oldest evidence of the Chinese language dates from the late Shang period 商 (17th-11th cent. BCE), when divination texts were incised into tortoise plastrons or other bones. This language, called Early Archaic Chinese, is very different in grammar from the modern Chinese, but still recognizable as Chinese. The pronunciation also considerably changed over time. The pronunciation of Mandarin is, compared to the phonetics of ancient Chinese, relatively simple.
During the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties 南北朝 (300~600), the suffixes zi 子, er 兒 and tou 頭 were for the first time used, likewise the prefixes lao 老 (like laoshu 老鼠 "rat, mouse" and laoya 老鴉 "crow") and a 阿. There are, especially in the field of religion, a lot of books written in vernacular language, which greatly helps to perceive the differences between the written and the spoken language. These are especially the Chan collections Zutangji 祖堂集 and Liuzu tanjing 六祖壇經, and the genre of the bianwen 變文 literature found in Dunhuang 敦煌.

The separation of the closed or "dark" syllables from the open or "light" syllables of the initial series [dʐ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ], [ʐ] and [dʝ], [tɕʰ], [ɕ] was a phenomenon having occurred in the last 200 years. Some of the "dark" syllable series even altogether dropped a vowel, without yet giving up the tone pitch. These are the "hummed" syllables [dʐ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ], [ʐ] and [dz], [tsʰ], [s]. This development coincides with the palatalisation of the guttural sounds [g] and [kʰ] which became [dʝ] and [tɕʰ] before open vowels beginning with [i] and [y].
Conway JRW, Warren SC, Herrmann D, Murphy KJ, Cazet AS, Vennin C, Shearer RF, Killen MJ, Magenau A, Mélénec P, Pinese M, Nobis M, Zaratzian A, Boulghourjian A, Da Silva AM, Del Monte-Nieto G, Adam ASA, Harvey RP, Haigh JJ, Wang Y, Croucher DR, Sansom OJ, Pajic M, Caldon CE, Morton JP, Timpson P. (2018) Intravital Imaging to Monitor Therapeutic Response in Moving Hypoxic Regions Resistant to PI3K Pathway Targeting in Pancreatic Cancer, Cell Reports. 23(11):3312-3326.
During the Song period, many rhyme groups of the Qieyun were already considered as obsolete, and therefore, late Song period scholars merged the obsolete rhyme groups with others, leading to a number of 106 rhyme groups. These are called the Pingshui rhymes (Pingshui yun 平水韻), named after the home town of the linguist Liu Yuan 劉淵. They were first used in a new edition of an earlier dictionary, the Renzi xinkan Libu yunlüe 壬子新刊禮部韻略.

A particular feature of predicates is that there is nothing like a copula in Chinese ("This is good."). Adjectives can serve as a verb, and only the position indicates that it is a predicate. The phrase hong chezi 紅車子 "a red car" becomes the full sentence chezi hong 車子紅 "The car is red." if turned around. There is also no indication of a plural, except for pronouns (我 "me", 我們 "we"), and no articles ("a car", "the car"). The last sentence could also mean "The cars are red.", or (theoretically) "cars are [generally] red".

El cuidado es una actividad feminizada que engloba aquellas prácticas necesarias para la supervivencia y el bienestar de las personas en lo cotidiano. Para las familias pobres, el cuidado forma parte de las estrategias de subsistencia que despliegan con el fin de lograr su reproducción como grupo. Este artículo expone los resultados de una investigación sobre las prácticas, las experiencias y los ... [Show full abstract]View full-text

In 1909, the Qing government founded a Commitee for the Establishment and Research of a National Language (Guoyu biancha weiyuanhui 國語編查委員會), and two years later a Conference for [General] Education in China (Zhongguo jiaoyu huiyi 中國教育會議) was held, which was reestablished after the foundation of the Republic in 1911. The first task of this conference was to determine the correct phonetic range and system of the National language. In 1913 a Conference for the Unification of Pronunciation (duyin tongyi hui 讀音統一會) was held which fixed the correct pronunciation of characters in the national language.

The tone pitches of Early Modern Chinese were identical to the four known tones of Mandarin. The diminished set of sounds had even elevated the importance of the tone pitches. Many Middle Chinese words with the falling-raising tone pitch had changed to the falling tone pitch. Even from early modern Chinese to the modern Mandarin, changes in the tone pitches took place. Some idioms of Mandarin still today show traces of voiced initial consonants and of the entering tone.

This project analyzes the ritual of the first sale, as practiced by an informant called Flor G., in the open market known as the pedestrian commercial area "Alley of the Poor" ("Callejón de los Pobres"), in the city of Maracaibo,Venezuela. The study approaches the relationship between everyday rituals, prosperity and religiosity, as well as ritualized conduct and rites regarding spaces where ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
The interest of Chinese scholars for astronomy was first satified by Arabian and Persian experts, and during the Ming period by Jesuit missionaries. Some Jesuits wrote Chinese books on technology and thus contributed to the creation of new termini technici in China. The overseas trade with Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean brought foreign loan words into China. Only a small amount of these Arabian and Malay loanwords have survived, for example, suona 嗩吶, a kind of trumpet. Yuan period texts contain a lot of loanwords from Mongolian, of which only a few are still in use, like zhan 站 "station", dai 歹 "bad, evil", hutong 胡同 "quarter in a city", mogu 蘑菇 "mushroom", or talian 褡褳 "bag".

She is also the physically strongest of the group. Her strength is displayed on numerous occasions, such as when her punch sent a fully grown man several feet into the air and through a glass pillar without the enhancement of her weapon, and in "Players and Pieces", where she was able to keep the mouth of a Nevermore open with one arm long enough to deliver multiple shots down its throat.
Already in this linguistic stage of the transition from Archaic Chinese to Classical Chinese, the amount of disyllabic words is considerable (like gaoyang 羔羊 "lamb", xuri 旭日 "rising sun", qinyi 寢衣 "pyjama", chizi 赤子 "baby", wugu 五榖 "the five grains", binke 賓客 "guests", daolu 道路 "way, street", juelu 爵祿 "rank of nobility", zhengfa 征伐 "to wage war against", libie 離別 "to part", shufu 束縛 "to tie up, to fetter", bianhua 變化 "change", or gongjing 恭敬 "respectfully", only to name a few). The literature of the Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE) is seen as the age of the standard Classical Chinese.
The rhyme groups also included syllables with different head vowels, which were, when writings poems, apparently not considered as decisive. Yet this negligence makes it difficult to reconstruct the factual pronunciation of a character. If discerning syllables with different head vowel, there were 150 rhyme groups. Middle Chinese knew 36 initial consonants, yet these were not essential for the rhymes, and therefore all rhyme groups include words with many different consonant initials. There were only two interstitial or "head" vowels, namely [-i-] and [-u-], but there was probably a long [i:] and a short [i].
Quite a modern phenomenon is the use of numerative measure words (liangci 量詞). In Classical Chinese, numerals and nouns were simply put side by side. Measure words are rarely seen and were restricted to certain expressions, like ma san pi 馬三匹 "three horses". The number is added after the noun as a kind of complement. In modern Chinese there is an abundant sea of measure words, like zhi 只 for small animals, pi 匹 for large animals, tiao 條 for long objects (also fish), zhang 張 for flat objects, wei 位 for honoured persons, chang 場 for events (like a rain) or theatre plays, or hui 回 for "(three) times". Ge 個 is a kind of general measure word. The syntactic construction is also different in modern Chinese: In the expression san pi ma 三匹馬, "three animals" is seen as an adjunct to "horse", and the measure word is treated like an interstitional particle.
Directional verbs (quxiang dongci 趨向動詞) are normal verbs that can also be used as complements of result at the end of other verbs or adjectives, like na lai 拿來 "to take here", ji chu 寄出 "to send out", re qi lai 熱起來 "to become hot". Auxiliary verbs are used as in other languages, and they are places before the main verb. "Prepositions" (jieci 介詞) can be seen as auxiliary verbs, as they, too, are placed before the main verb and originally were full verbs themselves.
In Classical Chinese, there was mostly no copula. Instead, equations are expressed by the particle ye 也, like Kongzi, shengren ye 孔子聖人也 "Confucius was a Saint", yet for negation the verb fei 非 is used, Kongzi fei xiaoren 孔子非小人 "Confucius was not a vile person". Yet some early texts already make use of the copulas shi 是 or xi 係. The copula shi 是 in modern Chinese can also signify a relation of belonging, like ren shi yishang, ma shi an 人是衣裳, 馬是鞍 "Men wear clothes, horses bear a saddle."
Very common examples for Classical Chinese words or expressions in written language are jiyu 給予 (instead of a simple gei 給), jiayi 加以 (instead of jia 加), or the words yu 與 and ji 及 (instead of the orally used he 和). The first two examples are still used because they are bisyllabic words and thus fit better in the flow of words in a sentence in modern Chinese, as well as in Classical Chinese.
In the idiom of Beijing and other northern regions there is the phenomenon of the suffixation of the retroflex sound [ɑɻ] (in Chinese called erhua 兒化 "r-ization") to nouns, adjectives and some verbs. The rhyme ending is in such cases slurred, like [gωɑɻ] from [gωan] and [ɑɻ]. In southern idioms the retroflex suffix changes into the sound [n] or [ŋ].

Confucian philosophers, often scolded as conservative, were by no means inclined to the classical language. The Zhuzi yulei 朱子語類, a collection of discourses by Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200), is written in vernacular language, at least partially. The creation of a lot of new terms in technology during the Song, Yuan 元 (1279-1368) and also the Ming periods, is due to the growing economy that stimulated a lot of inventions.

There is no consensus about the plosives [b], [d] and [g]. In the Hanyu pinyin transcription they are written like presented here (b p, d t, g k). Yet there were originally three different series of plosives, namely voiced (zhuoyin 濁音), voiceless (qingyin 清音) and semi-voiced (qingzhuoyin 清濁音). In some Mandarin dialects in the lower Yangtze area, the voiced plosives are still existing. Many linguists interprete the plosives of Mandarin as semi-voiced and as voiceless, and therefore write [p][pʰ], [t][tʰ] and [k][kʰ]. I think that although this might be correct it is yet misleading for most laypersons, and therefore I will consistently use the symbols indicated in the listing above.