The Mandarin language is written with Chinese characters (zi 字 or hanzi 漢字). Chinese characters are not pictures, but ideas of meanings (an ideographic script), and in many cases a quite complicated method to write sounds. About two thirds of the Chinese characters include a phonetic component. Each character stands for one syllable, and not necessarily for one word. The same character might have several different pronunciations, depending on the meaning. Yet a character can also have different meanings without being pronounced in a different way. This ambiguity in pronunciation and meaning is in first place valid for the Classical Chinese, where much more characters are expressing single words. In modern Mandarin, where most words are bisyllabic, it is not so easily possible to confound different pronunciations or different meanings.
Structural particles (jiegou zhuci 結構助詞) serve to connect words with adjuncts and complements. The three particles are pronounced very similar and can easily be confounded, also by Chinese. The most simple is the particle de 的, the original meaning of which is "target" (compare the word mùdì 目的 "motif, objective"). From the Song period on, it became a particle connecting a noun and a noun adjuncts, and thus replaced the older particle zhi 之. It can be called a genetive particle, like "of" in English, "de" in French or no in Japanese.
Very common examples for Classical Chinese words or expressions in written language are jiyu 給予 (instead of a simple gei 給), jiayi 加以 (instead of jia 加), or the words yu 與 and ji 及 (instead of the orally used he 和). The first two examples are still used because they are bisyllabic words and thus fit better in the flow of words in a sentence in modern Chinese, as well as in Classical Chinese.
Middle Chinese is much easier to reconstruct because contemporary Chinese strated investigating the sounds of their own language. The most important of these researches is Lu Fayan's 陸法言 (fl. 601) rhyme dictionary Qieyun 切韻 from the Tang period 唐 (618-907). Based on this book, the Song period 宋 (960-1279) scholar Chen Pengnian 陳彭年 (961-1017) compiled the rhyme dictionary Guangyun 廣韻. In the Qieyun, 193 rhyme groups were used, in the Guangyun, 206 rhyme groups (called the Guangyun rhymes). It is not known upon which idiom these books are based as a standard language. Yet about half of the the 206 rhyme groups are syllables with different tone pitches, and not syllables with different rhymes. There were, therefore, only 90 real rhyme groups.
Created by Pietro Polendina, Yang's cybernetic limb possesses great strength. Its power is shown in "Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back", where a single blow sent her father, a fully trained Huntsman, skidding back several feet, even though Tai blocked the attack. It is also outfitted with most of Ember Celica's features, including a shotgun.[8] As seen in "Rest and Resolutions", the arm can detach from her bicep, and can even be fired like a projectile.
Conway JRW, Warren SC, Herrmann D, Murphy KJ, Cazet AS, Vennin C, Shearer RF, Killen MJ, Magenau A, Mélénec P, Pinese M, Nobis M, Zaratzian A, Boulghourjian A, Da Silva AM, Del Monte-Nieto G, Adam ASA, Harvey RP, Haigh JJ, Wang Y, Croucher DR, Sansom OJ, Pajic M, Caldon CE, Morton JP, Timpson P. (2018) Intravital Imaging to Monitor Therapeutic Response in Moving Hypoxic Regions Resistant to PI3K Pathway Targeting in Pancreatic Cancer, Cell Reports. 23(11):3312-3326.
Yang is extremely sensitive about being abandoned and her "simmering anger" stems from these abandonment issues.[8] For the better part of nearly two decades, Yang spent her life searching for her mother, trying to understand her reasons for leaving. Their first reunion in "Lighting the Fire" also demonstrated how low her opinion was of Raven, reacting with anger after Raven said that Yang finally decided to visit her, making it sound like Yang was the one responsible for her mother not being a part of her life, and ignoring her attempts at lightening the mood and become hostile upon her father, uncle and Team RWBY being insulted in "Known by its Song". After Blake ran away at the end of Volume 3, Yang became guarded and even after the team's reunion at "Haven's Fate", kept some distance from her, stating in "Argus Limited" that their relationship would need time to heal. However, after a rematch against Adam in "Seeing Red", Yang fully accepted her partner's apologies, understanding that Blake was not like her mother.
Another group of disyllabic words consists of a noun and a modifier (noun adjunct, type pianzhengshi 偏正式), like pifu 匹夫 "single man", menren 門人 "gate man (retainer)", shengmin 生民 "living people (populace)", or fuyong 附庸 "appendage servant (vassal)", or a verb and a modifier (an adverbial adjunct), like huiyi 回憶 " to recollect back (to recall, to call to mind)", houhui 後悔 "to regret back (to regret)" or mixin 迷信 "to believe confused (superstition, blind faith)".
Many Chinese scholars perceived the shortcomings of a complicated script with characters. The characters are indeed not easy to learn, difficult to write, and can in modern times only be digitized with a tremendous effort. In order to overcome these difficulties, late Qing period and Republican scholars developed different alphabetic systems to transcribe the Chinese langage. The most important of these are the Ladingxua sin wenz, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, the Zhuyin zimu alphabet, and the Hanyu pinyin systems.

The Chinese language is one of the most important languages of the world. It is, if seen as one single language, also the language most often used, with 1.5 billion speakers. It is spoken as the national standard language by the inhabitants of the People's Republic of China, of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and by the many Chinese Overseas communities in Asia and around the world. Chinese is now also the language of one of the world's largest economical powers. And finally, it is a language with a three-thousand years old literary tradition. Some people might even say it is the only surviving language of the ancient cultures of the wolds (the others, Old Egypt, the Mesopotamian cultures, and the Indus culture, having died out since long).
The classical language has still an influence on newspapers, government reports, legal texts, official documents, business contracts, and even on private letters. This influence can be seen in the language style, the lexicon, and certain expressions. The reason for this is in first place tradition (for example, forms of address or ceremoniousness, but also the more concise character of the classical language). In books and magazins, Classical Chinese is rarely used in the People's Republic of China, but it is to be found in many films picturizing the popular classical Chinese novels.
×