Peng Q., Lu S., Shi Yx.., Pan Y., Linsakul P., Shi Yw., Chernov AV., Qiu J., Chai X., Wang P., Ji Y., Li Y.-S., Strongin AY., Verkhusha VV., Belmonte JCI, Ren B., Wang Y.L., Chien S., and Wang Y. (2018) Coordinated Histone Modifications and Chromatin Reorganization in A Single Cell Revealed by FRET Biosensors, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 115(50):E11681-E11690
A very large amount of Chinese words includes syllables with slightly similar finals without being categorized as words with "internal rhyme", like shangchuang 上牀 "to go to bed", qingchun 青春 "green spring", i.e. "young age or youth" or qingchun 清純 "pretty and pure". In the narrowest sense, there are only a few words baring more or less the same initials and exactly the same endings (like fufu 夫婦 "husband and wife", jiejue 孑孓, or lulu 轆轤). There are also words including a repeated syllable, like yingying 盈盈 "clear; enchanting; full display; agile, nimble", chuchu 楚楚 "clear, tidy; graceful", zizi 孜孜 "diligent, industrious", or diedie 爹爹 "daddy".
I visited some of their houses. They live in these very luxurious, kind of European-style villas. The furniture is all furnished collectively. It is all the same, along with the TVs and stereo systems. What they ate…it was basically salted fish and stuff like that. It’s not as if they are having very luxurious food or eating lobsters every night. For the cars, they buy the cars collectively. They might have upgraded the cars but I didn’t see people driving Lamborghinis or BMWs.
The oldest traces of a northern common language, the Mandarin language of Beijing, can be found in the Yuan period 元 (1279-1368) rhyme dictionary Zhongyuan yinyun 中原音韻 by Zhou Deqing 周德清 (1277-1365). The rhyme group system of Early Modern Chinese (jingu hanyu 近古漢語) displayed this book is simpler than in the 700 years older Qieyun and resembles the modern language in many points. While the Qieyun and its Song period successor dictionaries are first arranged according to tone pitches, and only then in rhyme groups, the Zhongyuan yinyun prefers the latter to the former. It knows 20 consonant initials, which roughly corresponds to the modern initials.
In many words the tone pitch of the second syllable is shortened and pronounced with a "light" or unstressed tone (qingsheng 輕聲), like in 頭髮 (tóufa° instead of tóufà) or 關係 (guānxi° instead of guānxì). The IPA symbols for the four tone pitches are ˥ for the high tone, ˧˥ for the raising tone, ˨˩˦ for the falling-raising tone, ˥˩ for the falling tone, and ˨ for the light tone. In the modern Hanyu pinyin transcription system 漢語拼音, the tone pitches are indicated by the accent symbols ˉ , ´ , ˇ , and ` , looking like ā á ǎ à , ē é ě è , ê̄ ế ê̌ ề , ī í ǐ ì , ō ó ǒ ò , ū ú ǔ ù , ǖ ǘ ǚ ǜ.
Despite this, Yang is deceptively mature. She is extremely nurturing, particularly toward her younger sister, Ruby. Yang pushes her into being outgoing and also worries a great deal about her sister across the many battles they fight in. This protective and encouraging nature extends to Blake and Weiss as well. Yang is worried about Blake on several occasions, such as when she runs from her team and when she suffers from sleep and appetite problems, opening Yang to discussing her stubborn past. What Yang does not reveal is that she suffers from abandonment issues, blaming herself for her mother not sticking around.[7]
There are also some disyllabic words that can not be dissolved in two morphemes. One of the two used as a single word would make no sense, like "embarrassed, in a dilemma" ganga 尷尬 or "irregular, uneven" cenci 參差. Words of this type are often beginning with the same consonant or ending with the same phoneme. In modern Mandarin, far the largest part of the words, regardless if verbs or nouns, is disyllabic.
The Mandarin language is written with Chinese characters (zi 字 or hanzi 漢字). Chinese characters are not pictures, but ideas of meanings (an ideographic script), and in many cases a quite complicated method to write sounds. About two thirds of the Chinese characters include a phonetic component. Each character stands for one syllable, and not necessarily for one word. The same character might have several different pronunciations, depending on the meaning. Yet a character can also have different meanings without being pronounced in a different way. This ambiguity in pronunciation and meaning is in first place valid for the Classical Chinese, where much more characters are expressing single words. In modern Mandarin, where most words are bisyllabic, it is not so easily possible to confound different pronunciations or different meanings.

China Huiyuan Juice Group Limited (Chinese: 中国汇源果汁集团有限公司; pinyin: Zhōngguó Huìyuán Guǒzhī Jítuán Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī) (SEHK: 1886), established in 1992 and headquartered in Beijing, is the largest privately owned juice producer in China.[1] It is engaged in the manufacture and sales of juice and other beverage products. Its products include fruit juice and vegetable juice, nectars, bottled water, tea, and dairy drinks.[2]
Structural particles (jiegou zhuci 結構助詞) serve to connect words with adjuncts and complements. The three particles are pronounced very similar and can easily be confounded, also by Chinese. The most simple is the particle de 的, the original meaning of which is "target" (compare the word mùdì 目的 "motif, objective"). From the Song period on, it became a particle connecting a noun and a noun adjuncts, and thus replaced the older particle zhi 之. It can be called a genetive particle, like "of" in English, "de" in French or no in Japanese.
The often-mentioned character of Classical Chinese as monosyllabic and modern Chinese as disyllabic is by no means true. There are many monosyllabic words in colloquial language (shou 手 "hand", tui 腿 "leg", wo 我 "I, me", gei 給 "to give, towards"), and also disyllabic words in Classical Chinese. Among the latter is a large amount of disyllabic words of which each syllable bears the same or a similar consonant initial or ending, the so-called vowel rhymes (lianmianci 聯緜詞). The syllables of many of these words can not be separated and used as monosyllabic words, like:

JiangMen HuiYuan Opto-Electronic Co., Ltd. was established in 1999, which is specialized in designing, manufacturing and selling LEDs. HuiYuan has been pursuing the innovation and the development unceasingly. We have upbuilt the modern high quality automatic production line and consummate quality examination control system. With over 400 staff and 30 professionals of technology and management field, our production capacity has got to 250KK/year, and scale of production has been more than thirty series and over one thousand specification, our main products cover a wide range: Outdoor Display LED , LED Lamp , High Power LED , LED Flexible Strip , SMD LED , LED Module , LED Tube Light ,etc. In the mean time we provide OEM service...


Like all Huntsmen and Huntresses, Yang has had her Aura unlocked, coating her body with a shield powered by her soul, which helps protect her, especially when her aggressiveness gets her into bad situations. Even with her Aura unlocked, her durability is also noticeably high, as showcased in her doubles match with Weiss against Flynt Coal and Neon Katt during the Vytal Tournament, where she withstands numerous hits from Neon during the bout's opening stages and powers through the effects of Flynt's weapon, knocking him out and securing victory for her side shortly after. Due to the nature of her Semblance and the high durability, Yang would typically absorb enough hits through her Aura to empower herself and then finish the fights with her Semblance, which her father criticizes due to her over-reliance in "Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back".
Its population was 3,700,000 at the 2016 census whom 1,301,732 live in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County being urbanized. Jiaozuo enjoys a humid subtropical climate with continental climate influences. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. Average temperature ranges from 0.3 °C in January to 27.5 °C in July. Extremes exist from -22.4 °C to 43.6 °C. Precipitation averages 659 mm.
The Chinese lexicon includes a vast amount of words and expressions through all times (for example, the lexicon of the Han period), all regions (e.g. the lexicon of Guangzhou 廣州), of different levels of speech (for instance, language in letters) and of professional fields (like expressions of the merchant guilds). Chinese scholars even go so far to investigate the lexicon of particular works, like the famous novel Hongloumeng 紅樓夢.
There might also have been cluster finals, resulting in what is perceived as a long entering tone (see below) and a short entering tone in some topolects. The syllables of Archaic Chinese are grouped into 30 rhyme groups (yunbu 韻部). All words in one rhyme group have the same central vowel and final ending, the initial consonant and the head vowel may be different. Words in a rhyme group are divided into three sub-groups, namely that with a nasal consonant final [-m] [-n] [-ŋ] (yangsheng yun 陽聲韻), those without final consonant (yinsheng yun 陰聲韻), and those with the consonant endings [-p], [-t] and [-k] (rusheng yun 入聲韻, "entering tone", i.e. a syllable with a consonant ending [-p], [-t], or [-k] ). If only the central vowel was the same, all words of the same rhyme group could serve to pair rhymes. There are some endings, like [-an], [-aŋ], [-ən] and [-əŋ] that did not change during the last 3,000 years, but much more words of Archaic Chinese bare a totally different vowel than today.
The arrival of new technologies and digitised media into family life, and how they intersect with contemporary changes in both childhood and parenting culture have resulted in a marked change in the nature of home-based musical experiences for very young children. From recent general surveys of digital technology use in everyday life among young children carried out in various post-industrial ... [Show full abstract]Read more
Instead of giving up the character script, it was decided to undergo a systematic simplification of the Chinese script. The simplified characters are only used in the People's Republic of China, and in Singapore. The simplification contributed to a substantial raise in literacy among China's peasant populations, but this might also have to do with a better education system. Literacy is not lower in Taiwan or Hong Kong because the Chinese living there use traditional characters. Yet instead of reducing the amount of characters, the simplification has created new ones which are also to be recorded in dictionaries. Common dictionaries in the People's Republic also list traditional characters, thus increasing the burden to pupils and learners, instead of reducing it.

Conway JRW, Warren SC, Herrmann D, Murphy KJ, Cazet AS, Vennin C, Shearer RF, Killen MJ, Magenau A, Mélénec P, Pinese M, Nobis M, Zaratzian A, Boulghourjian A, Da Silva AM, Del Monte-Nieto G, Adam ASA, Harvey RP, Haigh JJ, Wang Y, Croucher DR, Sansom OJ, Pajic M, Caldon CE, Morton JP, Timpson P. (2018) Intravital Imaging to Monitor Therapeutic Response in Moving Hypoxic Regions Resistant to PI3K Pathway Targeting in Pancreatic Cancer, Cell Reports. 23(11):3312-3326.
Land disputes have become a major tension between officials and villagers (around China). It’s not the case in those three villages because villagers share the benefits. There are no middlemen. There are no real estate developers colluding with cadres to enrich their own pockets. There’s no such thing because villagers are shareholders in those cooperatives.
A very large amount of Chinese words includes syllables with slightly similar finals without being categorized as words with "internal rhyme", like shangchuang 上牀 "to go to bed", qingchun 青春 "green spring", i.e. "young age or youth" or qingchun 清純 "pretty and pure". In the narrowest sense, there are only a few words baring more or less the same initials and exactly the same endings (like fufu 夫婦 "husband and wife", jiejue 孑孓, or lulu 轆轤). There are also words including a repeated syllable, like yingying 盈盈 "clear; enchanting; full display; agile, nimble", chuchu 楚楚 "clear, tidy; graceful", zizi 孜孜 "diligent, industrious", or diedie 爹爹 "daddy".
The trend to establish one idiom as the national language began in the the late Qing period. During the previous centuries, state officials from all parts of the country had come to the capital Beijing and had to orally communicate in a common language. The idiom (or dialect) of Beijing served as a model for the "language of the mandarins, the state officials" (guanhua 官話), yet the idiom itself was it was not adopted as a standard. The catchword of the scholars supporting the creation of a standard language was not only to unify the dialects of China (guoyu tongyi 國語統一), but at the same time to "unify the vernacular with the written language" (yu wen yi zhi 語文一致). The vernacular language was called baihua 白話 "plain language", and the movement was accordingly given the name baihua yundong 白話運動 "movement for the use of vernacular language [in literature]".

Like all Huntsmen and Huntresses, Yang has had her Aura unlocked, coating her body with a shield powered by her soul, which helps protect her, especially when her aggressiveness gets her into bad situations. Even with her Aura unlocked, her durability is also noticeably high, as showcased in her doubles match with Weiss against Flynt Coal and Neon Katt during the Vytal Tournament, where she withstands numerous hits from Neon during the bout's opening stages and powers through the effects of Flynt's weapon, knocking him out and securing victory for her side shortly after. Due to the nature of her Semblance and the high durability, Yang would typically absorb enough hits through her Aura to empower herself and then finish the fights with her Semblance, which her father criticizes due to her over-reliance in "Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back".

Modern literature of the 20th century is also not written in pure vernacular language but takes over the style of late Qing novels (baihua xiaoshuo 白話小說) that were written in a mixed style. A very interesting aspect is the creation of new words in reaction to technical modernization and globalization. Neologisms were partially taken over from Japan (a large amount of technical, political [e.g. guojia/kokka 國家 "nation", "state"] and scientific expressions in Chinese were invented by Japanese in a procedure similar to neo-Latinisms and neo-Graecisms in Western languages) that was modernized somewhat earlier than China, and partially created in China, often imitating linguistic and mental concepts of English, in some cases even syntactical aspects. Many examples for this can be found in the works of Lu Xun 魯迅 (1881-1936).
A third group of composita are predicate–object constructions, like chuxi 出席 "to come out on one's seat (to be present)", danxin 擔心 "to carry the heart (to feel anxious)", or xiaolao 效勞 "to bring labour into effect (to work for)". Very seldom are subject–predicate constructions, like dongzhi 冬至 "winter has arrived (Winter Solistice)", danqie 膽怯 "to be cowardly in the guts" (timid)" or juti 具體 "an objects takes shape (concrete)".
The main strong point of the Chinese characters is that they can bridge time and space. The huge treasury of 3,000 years of Chinese literature can be read by those proficient in the use of Chinese characters. Furthermore, people from whole China can understand the meaning of characters, even if they do not know the national language but only speak a topolect. The pronunciation of Han-period Chinese was very different from the Mandarin language of today, and the phonetic range of most topolects – and even that of Mandarin dialects – is broader than that for the Mandarin language. A transcription of the latter is therefore, in spite of Mandarin being the national language, is not very convenient to serve as a tool for a transcription for many other idoms in China. The use of the national standard language Mandarin in the many provinces of China is only passive, and the population is not actively using it.
In three-syllable words, the middle is often left out, yet for other abbreviations, there are no specific rules. Gaokao 高考, for example, is the abbreviation for Gaodeng xuexiao ruxue kaoshi 高等學校入學考試 "university entrance examination", waimao 外貿 for duiwai maoyi 對外貿易 "foreign trade", renda 人大 can be the abbreviation for Renmin daxue 人民大學 "Renmin University" or Quanguo renmin daibiao dahui 全國人民代表大會 "National People's Congress". Very common are abbreviations unifying two things, like zhong-xiaoxue 中小學 "elementary and middle schools", dong-zhiwu 動植物 (dongwu 動物 + zhiwu 植物) "animals and plants, or jin-chukou 進出口 (jinkou 進口 + chukou 出口) "entrance and exit".
The rhyme groups also included syllables with different head vowels, which were, when writings poems, apparently not considered as decisive. Yet this negligence makes it difficult to reconstruct the factual pronunciation of a character. If discerning syllables with different head vowel, there were 150 rhyme groups. Middle Chinese knew 36 initial consonants, yet these were not essential for the rhymes, and therefore all rhyme groups include words with many different consonant initials. There were only two interstitial or "head" vowels, namely [-i-] and [-u-], but there was probably a long [i:] and a short [i].

The rhyme groups also included syllables with different head vowels, which were, when writings poems, apparently not considered as decisive. Yet this negligence makes it difficult to reconstruct the factual pronunciation of a character. If discerning syllables with different head vowel, there were 150 rhyme groups. Middle Chinese knew 36 initial consonants, yet these were not essential for the rhymes, and therefore all rhyme groups include words with many different consonant initials. There were only two interstitial or "head" vowels, namely [-i-] and [-u-], but there was probably a long [i:] and a short [i].
Although the literature suggests that compulsive buying derives from an internal urge (e.g., to relieve stress or boost low self-esteem etc.), why do they persist even when such buying activities lead to harmful consequences? Why do they relapse? Note, moreover, that buying activities are a routine behaviour in our everyday life. So why do most people engage in 'normal buying' activities rather ... [Show full abstract]Read more
The Chinese lexicon includes a vast amount of words and expressions through all times (for example, the lexicon of the Han period), all regions (e.g. the lexicon of Guangzhou 廣州), of different levels of speech (for instance, language in letters) and of professional fields (like expressions of the merchant guilds). Chinese scholars even go so far to investigate the lexicon of particular works, like the famous novel Hongloumeng 紅樓夢.

The amount of "prepositions" was relatively small in Classical Chinese, the most important are yu 於 "in, on, at", yi 以 "with", wei 為 "for" and yu 與 "to, with". Yu 於 is in modern Chinese superseded by the words zai 在, xiang 向 and gei 給; yi 以 is superseded by yong 用 and ba 把; wei 為 is superseded by bei 被, dui 對 and ti 替; and yu 與 is superseded by he 和, gen 跟 and tong 同. The history of these words can be very interesing. Bei 被, for instance, originally meant (and still means, as beizi 被子) "cover". During the Han period it was used with the meaning of "to be subjected to, to be treated with", and soon became a particle expressing a passive clause. The original meaning of ba 把 was "to control, to handle, to hold" (like modern bawo 把握), but later on it became a particle expressing an object shifted in front of the verb (ba ta sha si 把他殺死 instead of sha si ta 殺死他). Most of these particles have lost their original function as verbs, but there are also others that can also be used as full verbs, like zai 在 "to be present", dui 對 "to be right", gei 給 "to give" or bi 比 "to compare".

Huiyuan (Chinese: 慧遠; Wade–Giles: Hui-yüan; 334–416 AD) was a Chinese Buddhist teacher who founded Donglin Temple on Mount Lushan in Jiangxi province and wrote the text On Why Monks Do Not Bow Down Before Kings in 404 AD. He was born in Shanxi province but after a long life of Buddhist teaching he wound up in Jiangxi province, where he died in 416. Although he was born in the north, he moved south to live within the bounds of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. 
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