Erdaojiang District has a number of steelworks, and tens of thousands of steelworkers are employed locally. In July 2009, workers at Tonghua Iron and Steel Group rioted (See main article) at news of a takeover deal by privately owned Jianlong Steel, and the general manager of the firm was beaten to death. The unrest reportedly involved 30,000 workers, with up to 100 injured in clashes with police. The takeover was promptly scrapped.[6][7]

Tonghua has a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with long, very cold, windy, but dry winters and hot, humid summers; spring and autumn are brief. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) in January to 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) in July; the annual mean is 5.60 °C (42.1 °F). During the warmer months, rainfall is enhanced by the mountainous topography, allowing for a generous annual precipitation total of 870 millimetres (34.3 in). However, the monsoon still means that more than 60% of the annual precipitation falls from June to August alone.
Recently, discussions have considered how mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) can build upon local resilience in war-affected settings. To contribute to the knowledge in this field, the paper explored the gap between MHPSS and local communities in terms of perceived mental health problems and healing processes, and how the gap could be filled. Qualitative research was conducted in ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
The deepest change took place by the vanishing of the voiced consonants which totally changed into voiceless sounds. 步 [b] merged with 布 [p], 在 [dz] merged with 再 [ts], and 似 [z] merges with 四 [s]. The Zhongyuan yinyun knows 19 syllable endings, resp. rhyme groups, which are identified by two characterizing words, like 東鍾 [tʊŋ][tʂʊŋ], 江陽 [tɕʝaŋ][ʝiaŋ], 支思 [tʂi][si] etc. The real number of rhyme groups is 40, which is far less than in the Tang and Song period rhyme dictionaries. One reason for this is that the entering tone (rusheng) had disappeared, and the words originally bearing this tone pitch had become yinsheng syllables (without final consonant). Another reason for the shrinkage of rhyme groups is that several Middle-Chinese vowel heads had merged with the central vowel. The interstional semi-vowel head [-y-] only came up during the Ming period. The consonant syllable ending [-m] should disappear at the same time and merge with [-n].
Chinese is famous for a particular category of what is often translated as "proverbs", namely the chengyu 成語 "accomplished expressions". Most of them are four words or characters long. There are much more proverb in Chinese than in any other language, and there are therefore specialized dictionaries, like Wang Tao 王濤 et al. (1986), Zhongguo chengyu da cidian 中國成語大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe); or Huang Yen-kai (1964), A Dictionary of Chinese Idiomatic Expressions (Hong Kong: Eton). The chengyu idoms go back to a tradition to write prose texts in verses, which was very popular from the 3rd to the 7th centuries (a genre called pianwen 駢文). The verses were generally four syllables or words long. A lot of them have a background related to a story, like
Recently, discussions have considered how mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) can build upon local resilience in war-affected settings. To contribute to the knowledge in this field, the paper explored the gap between MHPSS and local communities in terms of perceived mental health problems and healing processes, and how the gap could be filled. Qualitative research was conducted in ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
Words can, if standing alone, not be classified. There is no functional part of words marking them as a noun, an adjective or a verb, like prefixes or suffixes. Only the relative position of words to each other in a sentence makes it possible to discern subject, predicate and object, as well as adjuncts and complements. Many words can function as a verb and also as a noun. As to words, it is often hard to say if two monosyllabic words are to be viewed as two separate words or as one word, especially if the combination is often used (for example, the often-used expression da zhang 打仗 "to fight" is not recorded as a word in dictionaries because it is viewed as a predicate – object construction, "to beat a fight", yet dajia 打架 "scuffle", literally "to beat a quarrel" is seen as a unified word).

Confucian philosophers, often scolded as conservative, were by no means inclined to the classical language. The Zhuzi yulei 朱子語類, a collection of discourses by Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200), is written in vernacular language, at least partially. The creation of a lot of new terms in technology during the Song, Yuan 元 (1279-1368) and also the Ming periods, is due to the growing economy that stimulated a lot of inventions.

×