This article spells out the methodological considerations and various procedural and methodological subtleties developed over the author's quarter century of sociological field studies of Russia's peasant worlds. Particular attention is paid to “voices from below”—peasant discursive formats that capture, in natural and undiluted form, the evolution of peasant practices constituting the core of ... [Show full abstract]Read more
However, after the deaths of Pyrrha Nikos and Penny Polendina, the losses of her right arm and her partner, Blake, Yang sinks into a reclusive depression. The mention of her missing partner agitates her and she gives Ruby the cold shoulder and even outright ignores her sister when she says, "I love you". Over months, Yang rebounds from this reclusive nature. Though she suffers from PTSD, she tries to keep moving forward, partially for her father's sake when feeling she holds him back. After overhearing her father and Bartholomew Oobleck talking about Ruby outside her window, she accepts the wisdom of her father, Oobleck and Professor Peter Port and dons her new robotic arm.
This is the famous first sentence of the Lunyu, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?" The first line is archaic Chinese, in the reconstruction of Baxter & Sagart, the second line Middle Chinese according to Wang Li 王力, and the lowest line the Pinyin transcription of modern Chinese. Final consonants which have disappeared in Modern Chinese are marked in red. Tone pitches neglected.
... Anthropologists have conducted ethnographic research on the shopping activities and on the use of light bulbs to learn how people act in stores and how they use bulbs in their homes. A study of electricity use in China (Wu, 2008) showed that men, rather than women, typically purchase light bulbs, but that electric light is more important for women's economic activities (such as sewing clothes) than for men's, so that men and women might have different priorities in selecting bulbs. This study also showed that more expensive electric items are often purchased in stores, while less expensive ones are purchased in street markets. ...
Linguists distinguish consonant initials (shengmu 聲母), finals (yunmu 韻母) and the tone pitch (shengdiao 聲調) to discribe a syllable. Most syllables have a consonant initial, but there are also syllables without it. The finals can be divided into the the central vowel (yunfu 韻腹), the head vowel (yuntou 韻頭), which consists of interstitial semi-vowels [i], [u] and [y], and the final ending (yunwei 韻尾), consisting of a vowel and/or of the two consonants [n] and [ŋ].
In different dialects the same words may have a different tone pitch. The tone pitches of many words modern Chinese have even changed in the past 100 years. Mandarin knowns 21 consonants and 36 finals, making a theoretical pool of 756 sounds, multiplied with the number of tones, a pool of 3,024 different syllables. This is indeed not very much, and in practice, not all consonant initials are combined with all finals. [ga] 噶, [kʰə] 可, [xωan] 喚, for instance, all bear "dark" vowels, yet [dʝi] 幾, [tɕʰiɛn] 前, [ɕyɛ] 學, all have "light" vowels. In fact, there are only about 1,200 syllables used. This means that there is a tremendous amount of homophones (tongyinci 同音詞) in modern Chinese, like shùmù 樹木 "tree" and shùmù 數目 "number".
In incomplete sentences it is often not clear as which part of the speech the words serve. The phrase chuzu qiche 出租汽車 "taxi", for example, can mean "a car to hire" (adjunct noun and kernel), or "to hire a car" (predicate and object). The word is, by the way, commonly abbreviated as chuzuche 出租車, and it Taiwan known as jichengche 計程車 "distance-measuring car". Like in English, the same word can serve as a noun as well as a verb (travel, to travel; game, to game), but this does not mean that all words can be used for every grammatical function, or, as often said about the Chinese language in earlier times, that Chinese has no grammar.
Tonghua has a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with long, very cold, windy, but dry winters and hot, humid summers; spring and autumn are brief. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) in January to 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) in July; the annual mean is 5.60 °C (42.1 °F). During the warmer months, rainfall is enhanced by the mountainous topography, allowing for a generous annual precipitation total of 870 millimetres (34.3 in). However, the monsoon still means that more than 60% of the annual precipitation falls from June to August alone.
The Mandarin language knows 22 consonant initials, 3 interstitial semi-vowels ([(ʝ)i], [(ω)u] and [(ʝ)y] ) and 2 consonant endings ([n] and [ŋ]). Syllables include in any case a vowel (yuanyin 元音). There are, as a particular feature of the northern idioms of China, two groups of syllables that replace the vowel by a "hummed" continuation of the initial sound. These are the syllables with initial consonants [dʐ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ] and [ʐ], as well as [dz], [tsʰ] and [s]. Another peculiar sound of the Mandarin language is the retroflex approximant [ɑɻ] that is used as a syllable, but also as a suffix to monosyllabic words. In the Taiwanese national language, the [ɑɻ] is rarely used as a suffix. The word for "here", for example is called [dʐɛ-ɻ] by the Beijing standard, but [dʐə-li] in Southern China and Taiwan, and therefore also written differently, namely 這兒, and 這裏, respectively.
Confucian philosophers, often scolded as conservative, were by no means inclined to the classical language. The Zhuzi yulei 朱子語類, a collection of discourses by Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200), is written in vernacular language, at least partially. The creation of a lot of new terms in technology during the Song, Yuan 元 (1279-1368) and also the Ming periods, is due to the growing economy that stimulated a lot of inventions.