Very common examples for Classical Chinese words or expressions in written language are jiyu 給予 (instead of a simple gei 給), jiayi 加以 (instead of jia 加), or the words yu 與 and ji 及 (instead of the orally used he 和). The first two examples are still used because they are bisyllabic words and thus fit better in the flow of words in a sentence in modern Chinese, as well as in Classical Chinese.
Many Chinese scholars perceived the shortcomings of a complicated script with characters. The characters are indeed not easy to learn, difficult to write, and can in modern times only be digitized with a tremendous effort. In order to overcome these difficulties, late Qing period and Republican scholars developed different alphabetic systems to transcribe the Chinese langage. The most important of these are the Ladingxua sin wenz, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, the Zhuyin zimu alphabet, and the Hanyu pinyin systems.
There are also some disyllabic words that can not be dissolved in two morphemes. One of the two used as a single word would make no sense, like "embarrassed, in a dilemma" ganga 尷尬 or "irregular, uneven" cenci 參差. Words of this type are often beginning with the same consonant or ending with the same phoneme. In modern Mandarin, far the largest part of the words, regardless if verbs or nouns, is disyllabic.
Although the literature suggests that compulsive buying derives from an internal urge (e.g., to relieve stress or boost low self-esteem etc.), why do they persist even when such buying activities lead to harmful consequences? Why do they relapse? Note, moreover, that buying activities are a routine behaviour in our everyday life. So why do most people engage in 'normal buying' activities rather ... [Show full abstract]Read more
and so on (note that the Modern Chinese phonetic is considerably reduced to the richness of that of Middle Chinese). Some important terms were translated into Chinese, like nirvāṇa (transcribed as niri 泥日, niyue 泥曰, nihuan 泥洹, nipan 泥畔, niepan 涅槃, or niepanna 涅槃那) as fomie 佛滅 "the Buddhist extinction", yuanji 圓寂 "perfect quietness", anwen 安穩 "calmness", ji 寂 "quiescence", jimie 寂滅 "extinction in quietness", jijing 寂靜 "peaceful calmness", kong 空 "emptiness", or, somewhat more geared to the content of the concept, zhiyuanmie 智緣滅 "extinction in consequence of the perception of the reasons [for suffering and rebirth]".
Each syllable has a tone pitch. Modern Chinese has four tone pitches. In colloquial speech, the tone pitches are not always expressively pronounced, and there are some words where the tone pitch of the second syllable is not pronounced. Such syllables are spoken in the so-called "light" (qingsheng 輕聲) or "zero-tone" (qingsheng 零聲), like in dōngxi° 東西 "things", zǒule° 走了 "go", fángzi° 房子 "room", tóufa° 頭髮 "hair" or guānxi° 關係 "relations").
In consequence of the globalization, but also at earlier points of time, the Chinese language has accepted many foreign words. Yet the problem is that the Chinese script is made for the Chinese language, one character expressing one syllable and one distinctive idea (or word). Foreign loanwords could therefore only expressed by using characters that have already a distinctive meaning. This original meaning was to be neglected. Among the first foreign words coming to China were Buddhist terms of the language Sanskrit (fanyu 梵語, both the Middle Chinese and the modern pronunciation are rendered):
The most important topolects are Wu 吳, which is spoken in Shanghai, the southern part of the province of Jiangsu, and northern Zhejiang; Gan 贛, which is spoken in the province of Jiangxi; Xiang 湘, spoken in the provinces of Hunan and Guangxi; Yue 粵, better known as Cantonese and spoken in the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi; Min 閩, spoken in the province of Fujian, and in Taiwan; and Hakka 客家, spoken in many scattered places in Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, and in Taiwan. Cantonese and Hakka are also the main languages of Chinese Overseas.
Complements are used as adjuncts to describe predicates. Very typical are qualitative complements indicating a possibility or non-possibility of action, like shuo de qing 說得清 "speaks clearly", shuo bu qing 說不清 "speaks not clearly", ting de dong 聽得懂 "has understood", ting bu dong 聽不懂 "has not understood", shuo de liao 說得了 "can be said", shuo bu liao 說不了 "can not be said", mai de qi 買得起 "can afford to buy", or mai bu dao 買不到 "can be bought nowhere".
Complements are used as adjuncts to describe predicates. Very typical are qualitative complements indicating a possibility or non-possibility of action, like shuo de qing 說得清 "speaks clearly", shuo bu qing 說不清 "speaks not clearly", ting de dong 聽得懂 "has understood", ting bu dong 聽不懂 "has not understood", shuo de liao 說得了 "can be said", shuo bu liao 說不了 "can not be said", mai de qi 買得起 "can afford to buy", or mai bu dao 買不到 "can be bought nowhere".
Interrogative pronouns in Classical Chinese are sh(u)ei 誰 ("who") and shu 孰 ("who or which of both"), he 何, he 曷 and xi 奚 for things or circumstances, and e 惡, an 安 and yan 焉 expressing a doubt ("how can it be that", "this can hardly be"). In modern Chinese, the common question particles are shei 誰, shenme 甚麼, nali 哪裏 (in Beijing nar 哪兒) and zenme 怎麼. Question particles can also serve to express indefinites, like "whoever", "whatever".

The verb dé 得 means "to obtain, to get", and it is still used in modern Chinese (like the word dedao 得到 "to receive, to obtain"). As a particle, it connects a predicate with a complement, like chang de hao 唱得好 "[she] sings good". It came in use during the late Tang period. The particle de 地 (original meaning "earth" and pronounced dì) is used to connect a phrasal adjunct with a predicate, like in the sentence hen gaoxing de huanying nin lai fangwen 很高興地歡迎您來訪問 "[We] very happily invite you to visit [us]." (hen gaoxing 很高興 being the adjunct, huanying 歡迎 the predicate).
After arriving in Atlas and meeting with James Ironwood, Yang obtains an entirely new outfit primarily consisting of khaki coveralls, the gold zipper of which is unzipped just below the breast to reveal a white low-cut shirt. Around each thigh of the coveralls is a gold zipper that allows for the pants leg to be detached, as well as a belted strap that connects to the leg. The right leg is unzipped but still strapped to the coveralls. Over top the coveralls, she wears a baggy, black crop jacket with fur trim around the neck and black-and-orange straps along the sleeves. Around her waist is a black-and-orange belt with black-and-yellow folded fabric on the sides and a golden buckle of her emblem. She wears tall black boots with black laces. Around her left thigh is a wide black belt with a pouch attached. For accessories, she has resumed wearing her orange scarf around her neck and her purple scarf around her right leg, like she did with her original battle outfit.

El cuidado es una actividad feminizada que engloba aquellas prácticas necesarias para la supervivencia y el bienestar de las personas en lo cotidiano. Para las familias pobres, el cuidado forma parte de las estrategias de subsistencia que despliegan con el fin de lograr su reproducción como grupo. Este artículo expone los resultados de una investigación sobre las prácticas, las experiencias y los ... [Show full abstract]View full-text


There’s coercion. It’s not a democratic system at all. Villagers are not consulted in a lot of decisions. But they do share economic benefits.  It’s institutionalized through an incentive system that combines collective and individual interests and makes disengagement costly. It’s very expensive for villagers to leave the community. It’s almost like they are married to the collective. You need to pay a breakup fee (to leave).
There might also have been cluster finals, resulting in what is perceived as a long entering tone (see below) and a short entering tone in some topolects. The syllables of Archaic Chinese are grouped into 30 rhyme groups (yunbu 韻部). All words in one rhyme group have the same central vowel and final ending, the initial consonant and the head vowel may be different. Words in a rhyme group are divided into three sub-groups, namely that with a nasal consonant final [-m] [-n] [-ŋ] (yangsheng yun 陽聲韻), those without final consonant (yinsheng yun 陰聲韻), and those with the consonant endings [-p], [-t] and [-k] (rusheng yun 入聲韻, "entering tone", i.e. a syllable with a consonant ending [-p], [-t], or [-k] ). If only the central vowel was the same, all words of the same rhyme group could serve to pair rhymes. There are some endings, like [-an], [-aŋ], [-ən] and [-əŋ] that did not change during the last 3,000 years, but much more words of Archaic Chinese bare a totally different vowel than today.
Directional nouns (fangweici 方位詞) are positioned after the noun or phrase to be described. Structurally, the first noun or phrase is an adjunct to the directional noun (wuli屋裏 "(on) the inner side of the house", i. e. inside the house, guowai 國外 "outside of the country", kaihui qian 開會前 "before the opening of the meeting", literally "(the time) before of opening the session)".
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