The most important different in the lexicon of the topolects can be seen in personal pronouns, grammatical particles like conjunctions or possessive particles (de 的 in Mandarin, ge 嘅 in Cantonese), the use of suffixes, word repetition (as a method to indicate intensification or mitigation). Bringing forward an object by using a coverbal phrase with the coverb ba 把, for example, is typical for Mandarin Chinese and does not occur in other topolects. A typical question pattern of Beijing Mandarin is the repetition of the predicate in a positive and a negative form (shi bu shi 是不是 "is [or] is not"), while in other dialects of Mandarin, in the lower Yangtze area and the southwest, questions are indicated by the auxiliary verb ke 可 "might [it be that]?", without a repetition of the verb.
Its population was 3,700,000 at the 2016 census whom 1,301,732 live in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County being urbanized. Jiaozuo enjoys a humid subtropical climate with continental climate influences. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. Average temperature ranges from 0.3 °C in January to 27.5 °C in July. Extremes exist from -22.4 °C to 43.6 °C. Precipitation averages 659 mm.
In 1909, the Qing government founded a Commitee for the Establishment and Research of a National Language (Guoyu biancha weiyuanhui 國語編查委員會), and two years later a Conference for [General] Education in China (Zhongguo jiaoyu huiyi 中國教育會議) was held, which was reestablished after the foundation of the Republic in 1911. The first task of this conference was to determine the correct phonetic range and system of the National language. In 1913 a Conference for the Unification of Pronunciation (duyin tongyi hui 讀音統一會) was held which fixed the correct pronunciation of characters in the national language.
Another group of disyllabic words consists of a noun and a modifier (noun adjunct, type pianzhengshi 偏正式), like pifu 匹夫 "single man", menren 門人 "gate man (retainer)", shengmin 生民 "living people (populace)", or fuyong 附庸 "appendage servant (vassal)", or a verb and a modifier (an adverbial adjunct), like huiyi 回憶 " to recollect back (to recall, to call to mind)", houhui 後悔 "to regret back (to regret)" or mixin 迷信 "to believe confused (superstition, blind faith)".
The tone pitches have been discribed by Chinese linguists by a system of numbers referring to the height of the voice, 1 being the lowest, and 5 the highest. The first or high level tone is designated as 55 (from high to high), the second or raising tone as 35 (from middle to high), the third or falling-raising tone as 214 (from relatively low to deeper and raising again), the fourth or falling tone pitch as 51 (from highest to lowest). Example: yu35san214.
The standard idiom of the Chinese language is the so-called Mandarin language (guanhua 官話) of Beijing that was in use by the state officials (by Westerners called "mandarins") serving in the capital during the Ming 明 (1368-1644) and Qing 清 (1644-1911) periods. During the early Republican period (1911-1949), the Mandarin language was defined as the national standard language (guoyu 國語) of China. In the People's Republic, the national standard language is called "common language" (putonghua 普通話), in Singapore and Malaysia "Chinese" (Huayu 華語). The term guoyu is used in Taiwan.
Very common examples for Classical Chinese words or expressions in written language are jiyu 給予 (instead of a simple gei 給), jiayi 加以 (instead of jia 加), or the words yu 與 and ji 及 (instead of the orally used he 和). The first two examples are still used because they are bisyllabic words and thus fit better in the flow of words in a sentence in modern Chinese, as well as in Classical Chinese.
Based on a field study in a village in the northern plain of China, this paper reviews three different types in how Han-Chinese rural people have coped with domestic electrical appliances during the last 40-odd years of electrification. The aim of this paper is to offer an ethnographic study of the complex relations between technology and social life in a Chinese rural setting and to explore the logic and dynamics whereby rural populations confront and integrate new technical products into their everyday life. This paper is divided into three main parts: following the introduction on the “everyday technology approach” and background information about the field site, the author next gives a brief historical description of the electrification process in rural China. The third part is dedicated to the ethnographic data concerning five appliances: electric light, water pump, TV, washing machine and water boiler–cooler. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues concerning appropriation of new technology in the wider background of society/economy/state and everyday habitus, questioning how well conventional oppositional dichotomies like female/male, masculinity/feminity serve as analytical frameworks. —一项关于中国农村家用电器使用方式的研究 本文的写作基础是作者对中国北方一个汉族村落的社会人类学田野考察。由于中国农村的电器化过程长达四十年之久, 农村人群购买和使用家用电器的条件和方式呈现出非常多元的状态。作者选择考察日常生活五种电器—电灯、水泵、电视机、洗衣机、饮水机—来分析三种不同类型的购买和使用方式。本文的目的在于为研究中国农村社会环境下技术与社会生活的复杂关系提供民族志层面上的实证材料, 并探讨农村人群在日常生活中面对和接受新技术产品时所遵循的逻辑及其动力。 全文由三个主要部分组成 : 一、本文的理论背景即“日用技术研究方法”以及与田野调查相关的背景信息二、农村电气化的历史过程 ; 三、对农村人群购买和使用五种家用电器方式的民族志描写。作者认为, 在研究新技术产品如何被接受的过程时, 有必要将其置于社会/经济/国家这些大背景之下, 同时也必须注意到这一过程与日常惯习之间的内在关联。作者发现, 在家用电器进入农村家庭的过程中, 男女性别二元对立出现缓解, 农村家庭中夫妻之间的合作互助关系得以加强, 尽管男性与女性在购买和使用这些电器产品上各自有不同的想法和做法。 关键词 : 社会性别, 家用电器, 电气化, 中国农村
Tonghua has a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with long, very cold, windy, but dry winters and hot, humid summers; spring and autumn are brief. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) in January to 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) in July; the annual mean is 5.60 °C (42.1 °F). During the warmer months, rainfall is enhanced by the mountainous topography, allowing for a generous annual precipitation total of 870 millimetres (34.3 in). However, the monsoon still means that more than 60% of the annual precipitation falls from June to August alone.
Tonghua's population hovers around 300,000, but census information is difficult to assess as it includes demographic information from other towns nearby (for example, Erdaojiang - a suburb of Tonghua, and even Hunjiang, a city to the east). The inclusion of these suburbs and surrounding towns greatly swells Tonghua's official population beyond the 300,000-mark.
There might also have been cluster finals, resulting in what is perceived as a long entering tone (see below) and a short entering tone in some topolects. The syllables of Archaic Chinese are grouped into 30 rhyme groups (yunbu 韻部). All words in one rhyme group have the same central vowel and final ending, the initial consonant and the head vowel may be different. Words in a rhyme group are divided into three sub-groups, namely that with a nasal consonant final [-m] [-n] [-ŋ] (yangsheng yun 陽聲韻), those without final consonant (yinsheng yun 陰聲韻), and those with the consonant endings [-p], [-t] and [-k] (rusheng yun 入聲韻, "entering tone", i.e. a syllable with a consonant ending [-p], [-t], or [-k] ). If only the central vowel was the same, all words of the same rhyme group could serve to pair rhymes. There are some endings, like [-an], [-aŋ], [-ən] and [-əŋ] that did not change during the last 3,000 years, but much more words of Archaic Chinese bare a totally different vowel than today.
A pair of crooked black belts with gold accents are slung around her hip, with a purple piece of fabric attached to the left-rear section of the lower belt. She wears thigh high stockings attached to her miniskirt by garter-belts on the front and back of each thigh, decorated with four golden studs above her knee and her emblem on the outside of each thigh in gold. She also wears black ankle boots with multiple buckles and white ribbons on the back tied in a bow. Around her neck is a purple pendant set in silver.
During the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties 南北朝 (300~600), the suffixes zi 子, er 兒 and tou 頭 were for the first time used, likewise the prefixes lao 老 (like laoshu 老鼠 "rat, mouse" and laoya 老鴉 "crow") and a 阿. There are, especially in the field of religion, a lot of books written in vernacular language, which greatly helps to perceive the differences between the written and the spoken language. These are especially the Chan collections Zutangji 祖堂集 and Liuzu tanjing 六祖壇經, and the genre of the bianwen 變文 literature found in Dunhuang 敦煌.
During her attendance at Beacon, Yang wears the same brown shoes, red tartan skirt, white blouse with maroon trim and thin red bow, a brown vest with gold buttons, and maroon blazer with gold trim as every other girl attending Beacon, alongside with a pair of thigh-high black stockings. She retains her fingerless black gloves, as seen in "Best Day Ever".
In Mandarin there is also a difference between spoken language and the level of written language. The general tendency is that spoken language had a deep influence on written Mandarin, especially after the May Fourth Movement 五四運動, when writers started using the vernacular language (baihua 白話 "plain language") for writing instead of the classical written language (wenyan). Written Mandarin, nevertheless, still uses a lot of grammatic words and expressions in style that are directly derived from the ancient written language.
She is also the physically strongest of the group. Her strength is displayed on numerous occasions, such as when her punch sent a fully grown man several feet into the air and through a glass pillar without the enhancement of her weapon, and in "Players and Pieces", where she was able to keep the mouth of a Nevermore open with one arm long enough to deliver multiple shots down its throat.
The most important features of the phonetic system of Chinese is the simplicity of the sound structure of syllables, as well as the tone pitches. There are syllables with only one vowel, but also syllables with several vowels ([aɪ̯], [ɑʊ̯], [eɪ̯], [oʊ̯]). The semi-vowels [(ʝ)i], [(ω)u] and [(ʝ)y] can serve as interstitial sounds. In modern Chinese, only the consonants [n] and [ŋ] can serve as consonant finals. There are no consonant clusters in modern Chinese.
Yang is extremely sensitive about being abandoned and her "simmering anger" stems from these abandonment issues. For the better part of nearly two decades, Yang spent her life searching for her mother, trying to understand her reasons for leaving. Their first reunion in "Lighting the Fire" also demonstrated how low her opinion was of Raven, reacting with anger after Raven said that Yang finally decided to visit her, making it sound like Yang was the one responsible for her mother not being a part of her life, and ignoring her attempts at lightening the mood and become hostile upon her father, uncle and Team RWBY being insulted in "Known by its Song". After Blake ran away at the end of Volume 3, Yang became guarded and even after the team's reunion at "Haven's Fate", kept some distance from her, stating in "Argus Limited" that their relationship would need time to heal. However, after a rematch against Adam in "Seeing Red", Yang fully accepted her partner's apologies, understanding that Blake was not like her mother.
In Classical Chinese, a short object (a pronoun) can be positioned before the predicate (inversion) if the sentence is a question or a negation. In case of generalizations, inversion is also used in modern Chinese (Wo shenme dou zhidao 我甚麼都知道 "I know everything". Yi ge ren ye mei jiandao 一個人也沒見到 "Not a single person was to be seen."). In Classical Chinese, an inversion furthermore signifies a passive, like Handan wei 邯鄲圍 "Handan was encircled.", or Lü Buwei fei 呂不韋廢 "Lü Buwei was dismissed.". The actor is added by an auxiliary phrase including the verb wei 為 (like Handan wei Qin jun suo wei 邯鄲為秦軍所圍 "Handan was besieged by the army of Qin."), the verb yu 於 (like lüe ceng yu renbei 被, like in modern Chinese. The passive tense can also be expressed by the verb jian 見 (like Baixing bu jian bao 百姓不見保 "The ordinary people were not protected.") in Classical Chinese.
In modern Chinese, the most common pronouns are wo 我 for the first person, ni 你 or nin 您 (more polite) for the second person, and ta 他 (general and for males), 她 (for females) and 它 (for objects), as well as za 咱 for the third person. The plural is indicated by the suffix -men 們, yet only for personal pronouns. It can also be used in salutations, like ge wei Huaren lükemen 各位華人旅客們 "dear tourists from China", but not in normal sentences.
Jiaozuo (Chinese: 焦作; pinyin: Jiāozuò [tɕjáu.tswô]; postal: Tsiaotso) is a prefecture-level city in northern Henan province, China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the south, Xinxiang to the east, Jiyuan to the west, Luoyang to the southwest, and the province of Shanxi to the north.Jiaozuo is one of the core cities of the Central Plains urban agglomeration and a regional central city in the Jin-Yu border area.link
Children's health is a key factor in women's decisions to leave abusive partners, yet how these families promote their health after leaving is poorly understood. In this feminist grounded theory study, the authors conducted repeat interviews with 40 single-parent families that had left abusive partners/fathers and analyzed the data using constant comparative methods. Findings reveal the central ... [Show full abstract]Read more
The oldest evidence of the Chinese language dates from the late Shang period 商 (17th-11th cent. BCE), when divination texts were incised into tortoise plastrons or other bones. This language, called Early Archaic Chinese, is very different in grammar from the modern Chinese, but still recognizable as Chinese. The pronunciation also considerably changed over time. The pronunciation of Mandarin is, compared to the phonetics of ancient Chinese, relatively simple.
The separation of the closed or "dark" syllables from the open or "light" syllables of the initial series [dʐ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ], [ʐ] and [dʝ], [tɕʰ], [ɕ] was a phenomenon having occurred in the last 200 years. Some of the "dark" syllable series even altogether dropped a vowel, without yet giving up the tone pitch. These are the "hummed" syllables [dʐ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ], [ʐ] and [dz], [tsʰ], [s]. This development coincides with the palatalisation of the guttural sounds [g] and [kʰ] which became [dʝ] and [tɕʰ] before open vowels beginning with [i] and [y].
After arriving in Atlas and meeting with James Ironwood, Yang obtains an entirely new outfit primarily consisting of khaki coveralls, the gold zipper of which is unzipped just below the breast to reveal a white low-cut shirt. Around each thigh of the coveralls is a gold zipper that allows for the pants leg to be detached, as well as a belted strap that connects to the leg. The right leg is unzipped but still strapped to the coveralls. Over top the coveralls, she wears a baggy, black crop jacket with fur trim around the neck and black-and-orange straps along the sleeves. Around her waist is a black-and-orange belt with black-and-yellow folded fabric on the sides and a golden buckle of her emblem. She wears tall black boots with black laces. Around her left thigh is a wide black belt with a pouch attached. For accessories, she has resumed wearing her orange scarf around her neck and her purple scarf around her right leg, like she did with her original battle outfit.
The split between sociology and communication has had consequences for scholars in both fields. As these traditions moved further from each other, sociologists concerned with local ecologies, place, and “neighborhood effects” have generally neglected the role of media and variation in access to communication technology. Researchers who have focused on media, information, and communication ... [Show full abstract]Read more
A particular feature of predicates is that there is nothing like a copula in Chinese ("This is good."). Adjectives can serve as a verb, and only the position indicates that it is a predicate. The phrase hong chezi 紅車子 "a red car" becomes the full sentence chezi hong 車子紅 "The car is red." if turned around. There is also no indication of a plural, except for pronouns (我 "me", 我們 "we"), and no articles ("a car", "the car"). The last sentence could also mean "The cars are red.", or (theoretically) "cars are [generally] red".
Several verbal clauses in sequence are often not joined by conjunctions. The reader has to guess what logical relations the clauses have to each other, like "in order to", "yet still", or others. This also true for modern Chinese, a language that makes far less use of conjunctions than Western languages. For example, Wo fa dianyou cui ta hui lai 我發電郵催他回來 "I send him an e-mail urge him to come home.", or Ta rang wo liu xia lai zhengli jilu 他讓我留下來整理紀錄 "He told me to stay here in order to arrange the records.".
Complements are used as adjuncts to describe predicates. Very typical are qualitative complements indicating a possibility or non-possibility of action, like shuo de qing 說得清 "speaks clearly", shuo bu qing 說不清 "speaks not clearly", ting de dong 聽得懂 "has understood", ting bu dong 聽不懂 "has not understood", shuo de liao 說得了 "can be said", shuo bu liao 說不了 "can not be said", mai de qi 買得起 "can afford to buy", or mai bu dao 買不到 "can be bought nowhere".
There’s coercion. It’s not a democratic system at all. Villagers are not consulted in a lot of decisions. But they do share economic benefits. It’s institutionalized through an incentive system that combines collective and individual interests and makes disengagement costly. It’s very expensive for villagers to leave the community. It’s almost like they are married to the collective. You need to pay a breakup fee (to leave).