Suffixes (houzhui 後綴) are mainly positioned after adjectives and adverbial adjuncts, like ran 然, er 爾, er 而, ruo 若 and ru 如. Of these, only ran has survived until today, as seen in the words ouran 偶然 "by accident", ziran 自然 "natural", guoran 果然 "really, as expected", and so on. The common suffixes zi 子, er 兒 and tou 頭 have a long history (for instance, dizi 弟子 "disciple", penr 盆兒 "small pot",or 木頭 mutou "wood"). Zi was already used as a suffix during the Han period 漢 (206 BE-220 CE), the suffix tou appeared during the Southern Dynasties period 南朝 (420~589), and er came up during the Tang period 唐 (618-907).
Conway JRW, Warren SC, Herrmann D, Murphy KJ, Cazet AS, Vennin C, Shearer RF, Killen MJ, Magenau A, Mélénec P, Pinese M, Nobis M, Zaratzian A, Boulghourjian A, Da Silva AM, Del Monte-Nieto G, Adam ASA, Harvey RP, Haigh JJ, Wang Y, Croucher DR, Sansom OJ, Pajic M, Caldon CE, Morton JP, Timpson P. (2018) Intravital Imaging to Monitor Therapeutic Response in Moving Hypoxic Regions Resistant to PI3K Pathway Targeting in Pancreatic Cancer, Cell Reports. 23(11):3312-3326.
The Forest Park is dominated by natural landscapes. The total area of the park is about 1,041 hectares (2,570 acres) and the forest coverage rate is 98.7%. The main species are Korean pine, spruce, alfalfa, birch, and rare species such as yew, hedgehog[clarification needed], hawthorn, and magnolia. Under the canopy, there are mainly wild ginseng, ginseng, asarum and other medicinal materials.[10]

Yang is extremely sensitive about being abandoned and her "simmering anger" stems from these abandonment issues.[8] For the better part of nearly two decades, Yang spent her life searching for her mother, trying to understand her reasons for leaving. Their first reunion in "Lighting the Fire" also demonstrated how low her opinion was of Raven, reacting with anger after Raven said that Yang finally decided to visit her, making it sound like Yang was the one responsible for her mother not being a part of her life, and ignoring her attempts at lightening the mood and become hostile upon her father, uncle and Team RWBY being insulted in "Known by its Song". After Blake ran away at the end of Volume 3, Yang became guarded and even after the team's reunion at "Haven's Fate", kept some distance from her, stating in "Argus Limited" that their relationship would need time to heal. However, after a rematch against Adam in "Seeing Red", Yang fully accepted her partner's apologies, understanding that Blake was not like her mother.
The often-mentioned character of Classical Chinese as monosyllabic and modern Chinese as disyllabic is by no means true. There are many monosyllabic words in colloquial language (shou 手 "hand", tui 腿 "leg", wo 我 "I, me", gei 給 "to give, towards"), and also disyllabic words in Classical Chinese. Among the latter is a large amount of disyllabic words of which each syllable bears the same or a similar consonant initial or ending, the so-called vowel rhymes (lianmianci 聯緜詞). The syllables of many of these words can not be separated and used as monosyllabic words, like:
The standard idiom of the Chinese language is the so-called Mandarin language (guanhua 官話) of Beijing that was in use by the state officials (by Westerners called "mandarins") serving in the capital during the Ming 明 (1368-1644) and Qing 清 (1644-1911) periods. During the early Republican period (1911-1949), the Mandarin language was defined as the national standard language (guoyu 國語) of China. In the People's Republic, the national standard language is called "common language" (putonghua 普通話), in Singapore and Malaysia "Chinese" (Huayu 華語). The term guoyu is used in Taiwan.
The Chinese language is one of the most important languages of the world. It is, if seen as one single language, also the language most often used, with 1.5 billion speakers. It is spoken as the national standard language by the inhabitants of the People's Republic of China, of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and by the many Chinese Overseas communities in Asia and around the world. Chinese is now also the language of one of the world's largest economical powers. And finally, it is a language with a three-thousand years old literary tradition. Some people might even say it is the only surviving language of the ancient cultures of the wolds (the others, Old Egypt, the Mesopotamian cultures, and the Indus culture, having died out since long).
In the year 404, Huiyuan wrote a treatise On Why Monks Do Not Bow Down Before Kings (沙門不敬王者論).[4] This book symbolized his efforts to assert the political independence of Buddhist clergy from the courts of monarchic rulers. At the same time, it was a religious and political text that aimed to convince monarchs and Confucian-minded ministers of state that followers of Buddhism were ultimately not subversive. He argued that Buddhists could make good subjects in a kingdom due to their beliefs in retribution of karma and the desire to be reborn in paradise. Despite the Buddhists' reputation of leaving their family behind for a monastic life, Huiyuan stated "those who rejoice in the Way of the Buddha invariably first serve their parents and obey their lords."[1]

However, Yang's "brawler" fighting style is evocative of her personality. Her anger, one of her main assets in battle, can lead her to act predictably. When her hair is cut during battle, her resulting anger leads her to attack with straight, blunt force. Additionally, a battle against Neopolitan led to frustration on Yang's part, which quickly cost her the battle and almost her life had it not been for the arrival of Raven. Her thoughtless anger led to the quick loss of her right arm in a short encounter with Adam Taurus.
The Mandarin language knows 22 consonant initials, 3 interstitial semi-vowels ([(ʝ)i], [(ω)u] and [(ʝ)y] ) and 2 consonant endings ([n] and [ŋ]). Syllables include in any case a vowel (yuanyin 元音). There are, as a particular feature of the northern idioms of China, two groups of syllables that replace the vowel by a "hummed" continuation of the initial sound. These are the syllables with initial consonants [dʐ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ] and [ʐ], as well as [dz], [tsʰ] and [s]. Another peculiar sound of the Mandarin language is the retroflex approximant [ɑɻ] that is used as a syllable, but also as a suffix to monosyllabic words. In the Taiwanese national language, the [ɑɻ] is rarely used as a suffix. The word for "here", for example is called [dʐɛ-ɻ] by the Beijing standard, but [dʐə-li] in Southern China and Taiwan, and therefore also written differently, namely 這兒, and 這裏, respectively.
Modal particles are used at the end of a sentence. In Classical Chinese there are several important particles like the explanative particles ye 也, yi 矣, yan 焉 or er 爾 (also written 耳); the question particles hu 乎 (interchangeable with yu 於 or yu 于), xie 邪 (also written 耶), zai 哉 or yu 歟 (also written 與); the sighing particles zai 哉, fu 夫 and ye 也; and the imperative particles yi 矣, ye 也 and hu 乎. In many cases, these particles can be combined. Some of them can also be used at the end of a clause, as a kind of period marker, especially the particle ye 也.
The tone pitches of Early Modern Chinese were identical to the four known tones of Mandarin. The diminished set of sounds had even elevated the importance of the tone pitches. Many Middle Chinese words with the falling-raising tone pitch had changed to the falling tone pitch. Even from early modern Chinese to the modern Mandarin, changes in the tone pitches took place. Some idioms of Mandarin still today show traces of voiced initial consonants and of the entering tone.
Suffixes (houzhui 後綴) are mainly positioned after adjectives and adverbial adjuncts, like ran 然, er 爾, er 而, ruo 若 and ru 如. Of these, only ran has survived until today, as seen in the words ouran 偶然 "by accident", ziran 自然 "natural", guoran 果然 "really, as expected", and so on. The common suffixes zi 子, er 兒 and tou 頭 have a long history (for instance, dizi 弟子 "disciple", penr 盆兒 "small pot",or 木頭 mutou "wood"). Zi was already used as a suffix during the Han period 漢 (206 BE-220 CE), the suffix tou appeared during the Southern Dynasties period 南朝 (420~589), and er came up during the Tang period 唐 (618-907).
Since the end of Volume 3 and her mental recovery at the end of Volume 4, Yang's fighting skills had improved immensely, after training again. Notably, she has incorporated more kicking and dodging. Her new robotic arm also gives her a higher degree of strength, able to send full-grown men flying from the intensity of her blows. During her rematch against Adam, she defeats him despite his superior speed by adapting her combat technique and avoiding attacking him until he uses up the energy from his Semblance so that she can disarm him, showing her improved intelligence in combat.
A fledgling tourist trade sought to highlight Tonghua attractions such as some impressive ski slopes, the tomb of the local hero General Yang (a resister to the Japanese occupation of Manchukuo in the 1930s) and the beautiful Changbai Shan Nature Reserve for which Tonghua serves as a connecting railway station from the major population centres to the north and west.
This is the famous first sentence of the Lunyu, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?" The first line is archaic Chinese, in the reconstruction of Baxter & Sagart, the second line Middle Chinese according to Wang Li 王力, and the lowest line the Pinyin transcription of modern Chinese. Final consonants which have disappeared in Modern Chinese are marked in red. Tone pitches neglected.

The interest of Chinese scholars for astronomy was first satified by Arabian and Persian experts, and during the Ming period by Jesuit missionaries. Some Jesuits wrote Chinese books on technology and thus contributed to the creation of new termini technici in China. The overseas trade with Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean brought foreign loan words into China. Only a small amount of these Arabian and Malay loanwords have survived, for example, suona 嗩吶, a kind of trumpet. Yuan period texts contain a lot of loanwords from Mongolian, of which only a few are still in use, like zhan 站 "station", dai 歹 "bad, evil", hutong 胡同 "quarter in a city", mogu 蘑菇 "mushroom", or talian 褡褳 "bag".
The tone pitch can change, depending on the following syllable. In a word with two syllables of the falling-raising tone pitch, for example, the first syllable is spoken in the raising tone. In general, the third, falling-raising tone is spoken just low-level, without executing the full movement. This phenomenon is called tone sandhi (biandiao 變調) by linguists, sandhi being a Sanskrit word. The word yǔsǎn 雨傘 "umbrella", for example, changes to yúsǎn. The words bu 不, and the numbers yi 一, ba 八 and qi 七 also change their tone pitches according to the following syllable.
In November 1918, the Zhuyin alphabet was issued as the official transcription for the national language. In the same year, the newspaper Xinqingnian 新青年 started writing in the vernacular language. In 1919 finally, the Beijing government opened the Preparatory Committee for Standardizing the National Language (Guoyu tongyi choubei hui 國語統一籌備會). The Zhuyin alphabet was revised and to be used concurrently with the Gwoyeu Romatzyh transcription 國語羅馬字 which uses the Latin alphabet. While the Zhuyin alphabet was to be used by pupils in China, the Gwoyeu Romatzyh alphabet was thought as a means for internationalization. The use of the latter was officially promulgated in 1928.
Tan Y., Tajik A., Chen J., Jia Q., Chowdhury F., Wang L, Chen J., Zhang S., Hong Y., Yi H., Wu D., Zhang Y., Wei F., Poh Y.-C., Singh R., Seong J., Lin L.-J., Doganay S., Li Y., Jia H., Ha T., Wang Y., Huang B., Wang N. (2014) Matrix softness regulates plasticity of tumor-repopulating cells via H3K9 demethylation and Sox2 expression, Nature Communications, 5:4619
There are also some disyllabic words that can not be dissolved in two morphemes. One of the two used as a single word would make no sense, like "embarrassed, in a dilemma" ganga 尷尬 or "irregular, uneven" cenci 參差. Words of this type are often beginning with the same consonant or ending with the same phoneme. In modern Mandarin, far the largest part of the words, regardless if verbs or nouns, is disyllabic.
As can be seen from these examples, the four words are arranged in a parallel way. Learners of Chinese have to deal with a lot of chengyu. Even in normal speech, four-character expressions are favoured, like jinxing diaocha 進行調查 "to conduct research", jiayi zhengdun 加以整頓 "to improve consolidation", huxiang maiyuan 互相埋怨 "to settle differences" or gongtong shiyong 共同使用 "shared use".

Children's health is a key factor in women's decisions to leave abusive partners, yet how these families promote their health after leaving is poorly understood. In this feminist grounded theory study, the authors conducted repeat interviews with 40 single-parent families that had left abusive partners/fathers and analyzed the data using constant comparative methods. Findings reveal the central ... [Show full abstract]Read more


Some words have been technically translated, like duo gongneng yingyin guangdie 多功能影音光碟 "multi-functional sound record digital disc" for "DVD", but in daily life, the English abbreviation is used ([di vi 'di:]). Similary, AIDS is called aizibing 艾滋病 "[aɪ̯dz] disease" in everyday use, instead of rendering the scientific translation (houtian mianyi quefa zhenghouqun 後天免疫缺乏症候群 "acquired immunodeficiency syndrom"). Words in technology and economy are virtually all translated into Chinese, like
In Classical Chinese, there was mostly no copula. Instead, equations are expressed by the particle ye 也, like Kongzi, shengren ye 孔子聖人也 "Confucius was a Saint", yet for negation the verb fei 非 is used, Kongzi fei xiaoren 孔子非小人 "Confucius was not a vile person". Yet some early texts already make use of the copulas shi 是 or xi 係. The copula shi 是 in modern Chinese can also signify a relation of belonging, like ren shi yishang, ma shi an 人是衣裳, 馬是鞍 "Men wear clothes, horses bear a saddle."
Based on a field study in a village in the northern plain of China, this paper reviews three different types in how Han-Chinese rural people have coped with domestic electrical appliances during the last 40-odd years of electrification. The aim of this paper is to offer an ethnographic study of the complex relations between technology and social life in a Chinese rural setting and to explore the logic and dynamics whereby rural populations confront and integrate new technical products into their everyday life. This paper is divided into three main parts: following the introduction on the “everyday technology approach” and background information about the field site, the author next gives a brief historical description of the electrification process in rural China. The third part is dedicated to the ethnographic data concerning five appliances: electric light, water pump, TV, washing machine and water boiler–cooler. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues concerning appropriation of new technology in the wider background of society/economy/state and everyday habitus, questioning how well conventional oppositional dichotomies like female/male, masculinity/feminity serve as analytical frameworks. —一项关于中国农村家用电器使用方式的研究 本文的写作基础是作者对中国北方一个汉族村落的社会人类学田野考察。由于中国农村的电器化过程长达四十年之久, 农村人群购买和使用家用电器的条件和方式呈现出非常多元的状态。作者选择考察日常生活五种电器—电灯、水泵、电视机、洗衣机、饮水机—来分析三种不同类型的购买和使用方式。本文的目的在于为研究中国农村社会环境下技术与社会生活的复杂关系提供民族志层面上的实证材料, 并探讨农村人群在日常生活中面对和接受新技术产品时所遵循的逻辑及其动力。 全文由三个主要部分组成 : 一、本文的理论背景即“日用技术研究方法”以及与田野调查相关的背景信息二、农村电气化的历史过程 ; 三、对农村人群购买和使用五种家用电器方式的民族志描写。作者认为, 在研究新技术产品如何被接受的过程时, 有必要将其置于社会/经济/国家这些大背景之下, 同时也必须注意到这一过程与日常惯习之间的内在关联。作者发现, 在家用电器进入农村家庭的过程中, 男女性别二元对立出现缓解, 农村家庭中夫妻之间的合作互助关系得以加强, 尽管男性与女性在购买和使用这些电器产品上各自有不同的想法和做法。 关键词 : 社会性别, 家用电器, 电气化, 中国农村
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