In 1949, the People's Republic adopted the Guoyu as the national language yet changed the name to Putonghua 普通話. The Guoyu used in Taiwan and the Putonghua used in the People's Republic are basically identical, barring some exceptions. In the past 60 years there occurred, nevertheless, changes in the tone pitches of words and the pronunciation of some characters, and the two language have partially a different lexicon (like the word for "bicylce", jiaotache 腳踏車 in Taiwan, but zixingche 自行車 in the PRC, or "taxi", which is jichengche 計程車 in Taiwan but chuzuqiche 出租汽車 in the PRC).
The Chinese language is one of the most important languages of the world. It is, if seen as one single language, also the language most often used, with 1.5 billion speakers. It is spoken as the national standard language by the inhabitants of the People's Republic of China, of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and by the many Chinese Overseas communities in Asia and around the world. Chinese is now also the language of one of the world's largest economical powers. And finally, it is a language with a three-thousand years old literary tradition. Some people might even say it is the only surviving language of the ancient cultures of the wolds (the others, Old Egypt, the Mesopotamian cultures, and the Indus culture, having died out since long).
This article spells out the methodological considerations and various procedural and methodological subtleties developed over the author's quarter century of sociological field studies of Russia's peasant worlds. Particular attention is paid to “voices from below”—peasant discursive formats that capture, in natural and undiluted form, the evolution of peasant practices constituting the core of ... [Show full abstract]Read more
In Classical Chinese, words can easily change word classes. The adjective gao 高, for example, can be a verb "to raise sth.". The noun mu 目 "eye" can become a verb "to eye so.". The noun lin 林 "forest" can become an adverb, "to appear like trees in a forest, to mushroom". In modern Chinese many words can be used both as a noun and as a verb. Fanwei 範圍, for instance, means "scope, limit, extent", but also "to set limits to sth.".
Interrogative pronouns in Classical Chinese are sh(u)ei 誰 ("who") and shu 孰 ("who or which of both"), he 何, he 曷 and xi 奚 for things or circumstances, and e 惡, an 安 and yan 焉 expressing a doubt ("how can it be that", "this can hardly be"). In modern Chinese, the common question particles are shei 誰, shenme 甚麼, nali 哪裏 (in Beijing nar 哪兒) and zenme 怎麼. Question particles can also serve to express indefinites, like "whoever", "whatever".
Its population was 3,700,000 at the 2016 census whom 1,301,732 live in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County being urbanized. Jiaozuo enjoys a humid subtropical climate with continental climate influences. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. Average temperature ranges from 0.3 °C in January to 27.5 °C in July. Extremes exist from -22.4 °C to 43.6 °C. Precipitation averages 659 mm.
Quite a modern phenomenon is the use of numerative measure words (liangci 量詞). In Classical Chinese, numerals and nouns were simply put side by side. Measure words are rarely seen and were restricted to certain expressions, like ma san pi 馬三匹 "three horses". The number is added after the noun as a kind of complement. In modern Chinese there is an abundant sea of measure words, like zhi 只 for small animals, pi 匹 for large animals, tiao 條 for long objects (also fish), zhang 張 for flat objects, wei 位 for honoured persons, chang 場 for events (like a rain) or theatre plays, or hui 回 for "(three) times". Ge 個 is a kind of general measure word. The syntactic construction is also different in modern Chinese: In the expression san pi ma 三匹馬, "three animals" is seen as an adjunct to "horse", and the measure word is treated like an interstitional particle.
Non-verbal adjectives (feiyu xingrongci 非謂形容詞) are mostly nouns, often with adjunct, acting as noun adjuncts to another noun. In most cases they can be signified by inserting the "possessive" particle de 的, like daxing (de) che 大型(的)車 "large car (car of great size)". The difference to adjective adjuncts is that adjectives can serve as adjective verbs (chezi hong 車子紅 "the cars are red"), while non-verbal adjectives can not. Adjective verbs do not need a copula ("is"), a phenomenon also known in Russian. Yet a copula has to be used to combine a subject and another noun, like Wo shi Meiguoren 我是美國人 "I am an American." (negation: bu shi 不是).
I visited some of their houses. They live in these very luxurious, kind of European-style villas. The furniture is all furnished collectively. It is all the same, along with the TVs and stereo systems. What they ate…it was basically salted fish and stuff like that. It’s not as if they are having very luxurious food or eating lobsters every night. For the cars, they buy the cars collectively. They might have upgraded the cars but I didn’t see people driving Lamborghinis or BMWs.