... Anthropologists have conducted ethnographic research on the shopping activities and on the use of light bulbs to learn how people act in stores and how they use bulbs in their homes. A study of electricity use in China (Wu, 2008) showed that men, rather than women, typically purchase light bulbs, but that electric light is more important for women's economic activities (such as sewing clothes) than for men's, so that men and women might have different priorities in selecting bulbs. This study also showed that more expensive electric items are often purchased in stores, while less expensive ones are purchased in street markets. ...
There are also some disyllabic words that can not be dissolved in two morphemes. One of the two used as a single word would make no sense, like "embarrassed, in a dilemma" ganga 尷尬 or "irregular, uneven" cenci 參差. Words of this type are often beginning with the same consonant or ending with the same phoneme. In modern Mandarin, far the largest part of the words, regardless if verbs or nouns, is disyllabic.
Created by Pietro Polendina, Yang's cybernetic limb possesses great strength. Its power is shown in "Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back", where a single blow sent her father, a fully trained Huntsman, skidding back several feet, even though Tai blocked the attack. It is also outfitted with most of Ember Celica's features, including a shotgun. As seen in "Rest and Resolutions", the arm can detach from her bicep, and can even be fired like a projectile.
China Huiyuan Juice Group Limited (Chinese: 中国汇源果汁集团有限公司; pinyin: Zhōngguó Huìyuán Guǒzhī Jítuán Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī) (SEHK: 1886), established in 1992 and headquartered in Beijing, is the largest privately owned juice producer in China. It is engaged in the manufacture and sales of juice and other beverage products. Its products include fruit juice and vegetable juice, nectars, bottled water, tea, and dairy drinks.
On February 13, 2004, Yuntai Mountain as the fifth in the world, the third in the country China, was named the world's first World Geopark by UNESCO and caused attention at home and abroad. Meanwhile, Yuntaishan is also a national scenic spot, National Civilized Scenic Area, the first national AAAAA-level scenic spot, national natural heritage, national forest parks, national macaque nature reserve. Yuntain Mountain also has Asia's highest head drop waterfall.
Instead of giving up the character script, it was decided to undergo a systematic simplification of the Chinese script. The simplified characters are only used in the People's Republic of China, and in Singapore. The simplification contributed to a substantial raise in literacy among China's peasant populations, but this might also have to do with a better education system. Literacy is not lower in Taiwan or Hong Kong because the Chinese living there use traditional characters. Yet instead of reducing the amount of characters, the simplification has created new ones which are also to be recorded in dictionaries. Common dictionaries in the People's Republic also list traditional characters, thus increasing the burden to pupils and learners, instead of reducing it.
Tonghua's population hovers around 300,000, but census information is difficult to assess as it includes demographic information from other towns nearby (for example, Erdaojiang - a suburb of Tonghua, and even Hunjiang, a city to the east). The inclusion of these suburbs and surrounding towns greatly swells Tonghua's official population beyond the 300,000-mark.
Words can be distinguished by the tone pitch, but there are also lots of words bearing the same tone pitch. This is less a problem for most disyllabic syllables in modern Chinese, but speaking the monosyllabical Classical Chinese makes mutual understanding much more difficult. The four tone pitches are not used for all syllables. There are, for example, no words with the sounds [faɪ̯], [dən], [nia], [ʂʰωa], [gi], [kiaŋ], [dzy] or [ɕωeɪ̯].
Based on a field study in a village in the northern plain of China, this paper reviews three different types in how Han-Chinese rural people have coped with domestic electrical appliances during the last 40-odd years of electrification. The aim of this paper is to offer an ethnographic study of the complex relations between technology and social life in a Chinese rural setting and to explore the logic and dynamics whereby rural populations confront and integrate new technical products into their everyday life. This paper is divided into three main parts: following the introduction on the “everyday technology approach” and background information about the field site, the author next gives a brief historical description of the electrification process in rural China. The third part is dedicated to the ethnographic data concerning five appliances: electric light, water pump, TV, washing machine and water boiler–cooler. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues concerning appropriation of new technology in the wider background of society/economy/state and everyday habitus, questioning how well conventional oppositional dichotomies like female/male, masculinity/feminity serve as analytical frameworks. —一项关于中国农村家用电器使用方式的研究 本文的写作基础是作者对中国北方一个汉族村落的社会人类学田野考察。由于中国农村的电器化过程长达四十年之久, 农村人群购买和使用家用电器的条件和方式呈现出非常多元的状态。作者选择考察日常生活五种电器—电灯、水泵、电视机、洗衣机、饮水机—来分析三种不同类型的购买和使用方式。本文的目的在于为研究中国农村社会环境下技术与社会生活的复杂关系提供民族志层面上的实证材料, 并探讨农村人群在日常生活中面对和接受新技术产品时所遵循的逻辑及其动力。 全文由三个主要部分组成 : 一、本文的理论背景即“日用技术研究方法”以及与田野调查相关的背景信息二、农村电气化的历史过程 ; 三、对农村人群购买和使用五种家用电器方式的民族志描写。作者认为, 在研究新技术产品如何被接受的过程时, 有必要将其置于社会/经济/国家这些大背景之下, 同时也必须注意到这一过程与日常惯习之间的内在关联。作者发现, 在家用电器进入农村家庭的过程中, 男女性别二元对立出现缓解, 农村家庭中夫妻之间的合作互助关系得以加强, 尽管男性与女性在购买和使用这些电器产品上各自有不同的想法和做法。 关键词 : 社会性别, 家用电器, 电气化, 中国农村
Henan Polytechnic University (HPU), with a history of nearly 100 years, is the first mining university in Chinese history. Its former is Jiaozuo Coal Mining School which was established by the British Syndicate Co. Ltd., in 1909. It has changed its names several times in the course of development, namely, FuZhong Coal Mining University, Jiaozuo Private Institute of Technology, North-west Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo National Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo Mining Institute and Jiaozuo Institute of Technology. The University resumed its name of Henan Polytechnic University in 2004.
Vennin C., Melenec P., Romain R., Nobis M., Cazet A.S., Murphy K.J., Herrmann D., Reed D.A., Lucas M.C., Warren S.C., Elgundi Z., Pinese M., Kalna G., Roden D., Samuel M., Zaratzian A., Grey S., Silva A.D., Leung W., Mathivanan S., Wang Y., Braithwaite A.W., Christ D., Benda A., Parkin A., Phillips P.A., Whitelock J.M., Gill A.J., Sansom O.J., Croucher D.R., Parker B.L., Pajic M., Morton J.P., Cox T.R., Timpson P. (2019) CAF hierarchy driven by pancreatic cancer cell p53-status creates a pro-metastatic and chemoresistant environment via perlecan , Nature Communications, Accepted
In three-syllable words, the middle is often left out, yet for other abbreviations, there are no specific rules. Gaokao 高考, for example, is the abbreviation for Gaodeng xuexiao ruxue kaoshi 高等學校入學考試 "university entrance examination", waimao 外貿 for duiwai maoyi 對外貿易 "foreign trade", renda 人大 can be the abbreviation for Renmin daxue 人民大學 "Renmin University" or Quanguo renmin daibiao dahui 全國人民代表大會 "National People's Congress". Very common are abbreviations unifying two things, like zhong-xiaoxue 中小學 "elementary and middle schools", dong-zhiwu 動植物 (dongwu 動物 + zhiwu 植物) "animals and plants, or jin-chukou 進出口 (jinkou 進口 + chukou 出口) "entrance and exit".
The amount of "prepositions" was relatively small in Classical Chinese, the most important are yu 於 "in, on, at", yi 以 "with", wei 為 "for" and yu 與 "to, with". Yu 於 is in modern Chinese superseded by the words zai 在, xiang 向 and gei 給; yi 以 is superseded by yong 用 and ba 把; wei 為 is superseded by bei 被, dui 對 and ti 替; and yu 與 is superseded by he 和, gen 跟 and tong 同. The history of these words can be very interesing. Bei 被, for instance, originally meant (and still means, as beizi 被子) "cover". During the Han period it was used with the meaning of "to be subjected to, to be treated with", and soon became a particle expressing a passive clause. The original meaning of ba 把 was "to control, to handle, to hold" (like modern bawo 把握), but later on it became a particle expressing an object shifted in front of the verb (ba ta sha si 把他殺死 instead of sha si ta 殺死他). Most of these particles have lost their original function as verbs, but there are also others that can also be used as full verbs, like zai 在 "to be present", dui 對 "to be right", gei 給 "to give" or bi 比 "to compare".
As can be seen from these examples, the four words are arranged in a parallel way. Learners of Chinese have to deal with a lot of chengyu. Even in normal speech, four-character expressions are favoured, like jinxing diaocha 進行調查 "to conduct research", jiayi zhengdun 加以整頓 "to improve consolidation", huxiang maiyuan 互相埋怨 "to settle differences" or gongtong shiyong 共同使用 "shared use".
In the idiom of Beijing and other northern regions there is the phenomenon of the suffixation of the retroflex sound [ɑɻ] (in Chinese called erhua 兒化 "r-ization") to nouns, adjectives and some verbs. The rhyme ending is in such cases slurred, like [gωɑɻ] from [gωan] and [ɑɻ]. In southern idioms the retroflex suffix changes into the sound [n] or [ŋ].
Tan Y., Tajik A., Chen J., Jia Q., Chowdhury F., Wang L, Chen J., Zhang S., Hong Y., Yi H., Wu D., Zhang Y., Wei F., Poh Y.-C., Singh R., Seong J., Lin L.-J., Doganay S., Li Y., Jia H., Ha T., Wang Y., Huang B., Wang N. (2014) Matrix softness regulates plasticity of tumor-repopulating cells via H3K9 demethylation and Sox2 expression, Nature Communications, 5:4619
Around her hips and over the tails of her coat is a brown belt, which has two pieces of dark brown material trimmed in gold attached to it. The first covers from her left hip to the back of the belt and is folded over the belt, and the second is attached from the right hip and almost around to the other piece of material. She wears knee high brown boots with gold caps on the heel and toe, with the heel cap attaching to a gold strap across the front of her ankle, and a gold zipper on the upper half of the front of the boots. A single small buckled strap is on the upper outside of her boots, and a purple bandanna tied around her left knee. A pair of black fingerless gloves with long brown cuffs reaching to mid-forearm complete the outfit.
The most important different in the lexicon of the topolects can be seen in personal pronouns, grammatical particles like conjunctions or possessive particles (de 的 in Mandarin, ge 嘅 in Cantonese), the use of suffixes, word repetition (as a method to indicate intensification or mitigation). Bringing forward an object by using a coverbal phrase with the coverb ba 把, for example, is typical for Mandarin Chinese and does not occur in other topolects. A typical question pattern of Beijing Mandarin is the repetition of the predicate in a positive and a negative form (shi bu shi 是不是 "is [or] is not"), while in other dialects of Mandarin, in the lower Yangtze area and the southwest, questions are indicated by the auxiliary verb ke 可 "might [it be that]?", without a repetition of the verb.
and so on (note that the Modern Chinese phonetic is considerably reduced to the richness of that of Middle Chinese). Some important terms were translated into Chinese, like nirvāṇa (transcribed as niri 泥日, niyue 泥曰, nihuan 泥洹, nipan 泥畔, niepan 涅槃, or niepanna 涅槃那) as fomie 佛滅 "the Buddhist extinction", yuanji 圓寂 "perfect quietness", anwen 安穩 "calmness", ji 寂 "quiescence", jimie 寂滅 "extinction in quietness", jijing 寂靜 "peaceful calmness", kong 空 "emptiness", or, somewhat more geared to the content of the concept, zhiyuanmie 智緣滅 "extinction in consequence of the perception of the reasons [for suffering and rebirth]".
Although not discernible by formal criteria, Chinese words can be categorized in different lexical categories or word classes. Some words can be put into several categories because they can take over different parts of speech. The first distinction is therefore whether a word is a notional word (shici 實詞) or a functional word (xuci 虛詞). Notional words can be divided into seven categories, funtional words into six, of which the last three are very small.
There’s coercion. It’s not a democratic system at all. Villagers are not consulted in a lot of decisions. But they do share economic benefits. It’s institutionalized through an incentive system that combines collective and individual interests and makes disengagement costly. It’s very expensive for villagers to leave the community. It’s almost like they are married to the collective. You need to pay a breakup fee (to leave).